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 The Description Contained in the Holy Scriptures of the Pharaoh's Death During the Exodus.

The Mummy of Ramses ii


The Mummy of Merneptah son of Ramses iiThis event marks a very important point in the narrations contained in the Bible and the Qur'an. It stands forth very clearly in the texts. It is referred to in the Bible, not only in the Pentateuch or Torah, but also in the Psalms: the references have already been given.

It is very strange to find that Christian commentators have completely ignored it. Thus, Father de Vaux maintains the theory that the Exodus from Egypt took place in the first half or the middle of Ramesses II's reign. His theory takes no account of the fact that the Pharaoh perished during the Exodus, a fact which should make all hypotheses place the event at the end of a reign. In his Ancient History of Israel (Histoire ancienne d'Israel), the Head of the Biblical School of Jerusalem does not seem to be at all troubled by the contradiction between the theory he maintains and the data contained in the two Books of the Bible: the Torah and Psalms.

In his book, Egypt and the Bible (L'Egypte et la Bible), P. Montet places the Exodus during Merneptah's reign, but says nothing about the death of the Pharaoh who was at the head of the army following the fleeing Hebrews.

This highly surprising attitude contrasts with the Jews' outlook: Psalm 136, verse 15 gives thanks to God who "overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Sea of Rushes" and is often recited in their liturgy. They know of the agreement between this verse and the passage in Exodus (14,28-29): "The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the host of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea; not so much as one of them remained." There is no shadow of a doubt for them that the Pharaoh and his troops were wiped out. These same texts are present in Christian Bibles.


Christian commentators quite deliberately, and in contradiction to all the evidence, brush aside the Pharaoh's death. What is more however, some of them mention the reference made to it in the Qur'an and encourage their readers to make very strange comparisons. In the translation of the Bible directed by the Biblical School of Jerusalem we find the following commentary on the Pharaoh's death by Father Couroyer.

"The Quran refers to this (Pharaoh's death) (sura 10, verses 90-92), and popular tradition has it that the Pharaoh who was drowned with his army (an event which is not mentioned in the Holy Text) lives beneath the ocean where he rules over the men of the sea, i.e. the seals".

It is obvious that the uninformed reader of the Qur'an is bound to establish a connection between a statement in it which-for the commentator-contradicts the Biblical text and this absurd legend which comes from a so-called popular tradition mentioned in the commentary after the reference to the Qur'an.

The real meaning of the statement in the Qur'an on this has nothing to do with what this commentator suggests: verses 90 to 92, sura 10 inform us that

“And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in tyranny and enmity until, when drowning overtook him, he said, "I believe that there is no deity except that in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of the Muslims - Now? And you had disobeyed [Him] before and were of the corrupters? - So today We will save you in body that you may be to those who succeed you a sign. And indeed, many among the people, of Our signs, are heedless” (Quran 10:90-92)

This is all that the sura contains on the Pharaoh's death. There is no question of the phantasms recorded by the Biblical commentator either here or anywhere else in the Qur'an. The text of the Qur'an merely states very clearly that the Pharaoh's body will be saved: that is the important piece of information.

When the Qur'an was transmitted to man by the Prophet, the bodies of all the Pharaohs who are today considered (rightly or wrongly) to have something to do with the Exodus were in their tombs of the Necropolis of Thebes, on the opposite side of the Nile from Luxor. At the time however, absolutely nothing was known of this fact, and it was not until the end of the Nineteenth century that they were discovered there.

As the Qur'an states, the body of the Pharaoh of the Exodus was in fact rescued: whichever of the Pharaohs it was, visitors may see him in the Royal Mummies Room-of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. The truth is therefore very different from the ludicrous legend that Father Couroyer has attached to the Qur'an.

Many centuries ago, the community of Saba was one of the four biggest civilisations which lived in South Arabia.

Historical sources relating to Saba usually say that this was a culture akin to that of the Phoenicians. It was particularly involved in commercial activities. The Sabaeans are recognised by historians as a civilised and cultured people. In the inscriptions of the rulers of Saba, words such as "restore," "dedicate" and "construct" are frequently used. The Ma'rib Dam, which is one of the most important monuments of this people, is an important indication of the technological level this people had reached.

The Sabaean state had one of the strongest armies in the region and was able to adopt an expansionist policy thanks to its potent army. With its advanced culture and army, the Sabaean state was without question one of the "super powers" of the region at the time. This extraordinarily strong army of the Sabaean state is also described in the Qur'an. An expression of the commanders of the Saba army related in the Qur'an, shows the extent of the confidence this army had in itself. The commanders call out to the female ruler (Queen) of the state:

… "We possess strength and we possess great force. But the matter is in your hands so consider what you command." (Qur'an, 27:33)

Because of the Ma'rib Dam which had been constructed, with the help of quite advanced technology for that particular era, the people of Saba possessed an enormous irrigation capacity. The fertile soil they acquired by virtue of this technique and their control over the trade route permitted them a splendid lifestyle, full of well-being. However, instead of giving thanks to Allah for all this, the Qur'an informs us that they actually "turned away from Him." Furthermore, they refused to heed the warnings and reminders issued to them. Because of these poor moral values, they merited punishment in the sight of Allah and their dams collapsed and the flood of Arim ruined all their lands.

The capital city of the Sabaean state was Ma'rib, which was extremely wealthy thanks to its advantageous geographical position. The capital city was very close to the River Adhanah. The point where the river reached Jabal Balaq was very suitable for the construction of a dam. Making use of this condition, the Sabaean people constructed a dam at this location at the time when their civilisation was first established, and they began irrigation. As a result, they reached a very high level of economic prosperity. The capital city, Ma'rib, was one of the most developed cities of the time. The Greek writer Pliny, who had visited the region and greatly praised it, also mentioned how green this region was.

The height of the dam in Ma'rib was 16 metres, its width was 60 metres and its length was 620 metres. According to the calculations, the total area that could be irrigated by the dam was 9,600 hectares, of which 5,300 hectares belonged to the southern plain. The remaining part belonged to the northern plain. These two plains were referred to as "Ma'rib and two plains" in the Sabaean inscriptions. The expression in the Qur'an, "two gardens to the right and to the left," points to the imposing gardens and vineyards in these two valleys. Thanks to this dam and its irrigation systems, the region became famous as the best irrigated and most fruitful area of Yemen. The Frenchman J. Holevy and the Austrian Glaser proved from written documents that the Ma'rib dam existed since ancient times. In documents written in the Himer dialect, it is related that this dam rendered the territory very productive and was the heartbeat of the economy.

The dam that collapsed in 542 led to the flood of Arim and caused enormous damage. The vineyards, orchards and fields cultivated for hundreds of years by the people of Saba were completely destroyed. Following the collapse of the dam, the people of Saba appear to have entered a period of rapid contraction, at the end of which the Sabaean state came to an end.

When we examine the Qur'an in the light of the historical data above, we observe that there is very substantial agreement here. Archaeological findings and the historical data both verify what is recorded in the Qur'an. As mentioned in the verse, these people, who did not listen to the exhortations of their Prophet and who rejected faith, were in the end punished with a dreadful flood. This flood is described in the Qur'an in the following verses:

There was, for Saba, aforetime, a Sign in their home-land-two Gardens to the right and to the left. "Eat of the Sustenance [provided] by your Lord, and be grateful to Him: a territory fair and happy, and a Lord Oft-Forgiving!" But they turned away [from Allah], and We sent against them the Flood [released] from the dams, and We converted their two garden [rows] into "gardens" producing bitter fruit, and tamarisks, and some few [stunted] Lote-trees. That was the Requital We gave them because they ungratefully rejected Faith: And never do We give [such] requital except to such as are ungrateful rejecters. (Qur'an, 34:15-17)

In the Qur'an, the punishment sent to the Sabaean people is named as "Sayl al-Arim" which means the "flood of Arim." This expression used in the Qur'an also tells us the manner in which this disaster occurred. The word "Arim" means dam or barrier. The expression "Sayl al-Arim" describes a flood that came about with the collapse of this barrier. Islamic commentators have resolved the issue of time and place being guided by the terms used in the Qur'an about the flood of Arim. For example, Mawdudi writes in his commentary:

As also used in the expression, Sayl al-Arim, the word "arim" is derived from the word "arimen" used in the Southern Arabic dialect, which means "dam, barrier." In the ruins unearthed in the excavations made in Yemen, this word was seen to be frequently used in this meaning. For example, in the inscriptions which was ordered by Yemen's Habesh monarch, Ebrehe (Abraha), after the restoration of the big Ma'rib wall in 542 and 543 AD, this word was used to mean dam (barrier) time and again. So, the expression of Sayl al- Arim means "a flood disaster which occurs after the destruction of a dam." "… We converted their two garden [rows] into gardens producing bitter fruit, and tamarisks, and some few [stunted] Lote-trees" (Qur'an, 34:16). That is, after the collapse of the dam-wall, all the country was inundated by the flood. The canals that had been dug by the Sabaean people, and the wall that had been constructed by building barriers between the mountains, were destroyed and the irrigation system fell apart. As a result, the territory, which was like a garden before, turned into a jungle. There was no fruit left but the cherry-like fruit of little stumpy trees.

The Christian archaeologist Werner Keller, writer of "Und Die Bible Hat Doch Recht" (The Holy Book Was Right), accepted that the flood of Arim occurred according to the description of the Qur'an and wrote that the existence of such a dam and the destruction of the whole country by its collapse proves that the example given in the Qur'an about the people of the garden was indeed realised.

After the disaster of the Arim flood, the region started to turn into a desert and the Sabaean people lost their most important source of income. Their lands, which had been agricultural havens of prosperity and financial strength, disappeared. The people, who had not heeded the call of Allah to believe in Him and to be grateful to Him, were in the end punished with this disaster.

  • Hommel, Explorations in Bible Lands (Philadelphia: 1903), 739.
  • "Marib", Islam Ansiklopedisi: Islam Alemi, Tarihi, Cografya, Etnografya ve Bibliyografya Lugati (Encyclopedia of Islam: Dictionary of Islamic World, History, Geography, Ethnography, and Bibliography,) 7, 323-339.
  • Mevdudi, Tefhimül Kuran (An Honoring of the Qur’an) 4, Insan Yayinlari (Istanbul), 517.
  • Keller, Und die Bibel hat doch recht, 230

Pharaoh and those people close to him were so devoted to their polytheistic system and pagan beliefs that not even message of the Prophet Musa (as), armed with wisdom and spectacular miracles, could soften their hearts and thus turn them away from baseless superstitions. They also openly stated this fact:

 "No matter what kind of Sign you bring us to bewitch us, we will not believe in you." (Qur'an, 7:132)

Because of their haughty attitude, Allah sent to them afflictions, described as "Signs, clear and distinct" in one verse, in order to punish them for their haughtiness. (Qur'an, 7:133) The first of these was drought. As a result, there was a fall in production. The relevant verse of the Qur'an states:

We seized Pharaoh's people with years of drought and scarcity of fruits so that hopefully they would pay heed. (Qur'an, 7:130)

The Egyptians' agricultural systems depended on the River Nile and changes in natural conditions did not therefore generally affect them. However, Pharaoh and those around him suffered greatly because of their pride and refusal to recognise Allah's Messenger. Yet instead of "paying heed," they regarded these events as bad luck caused by the Prophet Musa (as) and the Tribe of Israel. Following that, Allah sent a series of tribulations. We are told of these in the Qur'an:

So We sent down on them floods, locusts, lice, frogs and blood, Signs, clear and distinct, but they proved arrogant and were an evildoing people. (Qur'an, 7:133)

The details in the papyrus regarding the disasters that struck the people of Egypt are just as described in the Qur'an. In the Qur'an, we are told about these catastrophes. This Islamic account of this period of human history has been confirmed by the discovery in Egypt, in the early 19th century, of the Ipuwer papyruses dating back to the Middle Kingdom. After the discovery of this papyrus, it was sent to the Leiden Dutch Museum in 1909 and translated by A. H. Gardiner, a prominent scholar of ancient Egypt. In the papyrus were described such disasters in Egypt as famine, drought and the fleeing of the slaves from Egypt. Moreover, it appears that the writer of the papyrus, one Ipuwer, had actually witnessed these events. This is how the Ipuwer papyrus refers to these catastrophes described in the Qur'an:

 Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere.

 The river is blood.

Forsooth, that has perished which yesterday was seen. The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax.

Lower Egypt weeps... The entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong (by right) wheat and barley, geese and fish.

Forsooth, grain has perished on every side.

The land-to its whole extent confusion and terrible noise… For nine days there was no exit from the palace and no one could see the face of his fellow… Towns were destroyed by mighty tides… Upper Egypt suffered devastation… blood everywhere… pestilence throughout the country… No one really sails north to Byblos today. What shall we do for cedar for our mummies?… Gold is lacking…

Men shrink from tasting-human beings, and thirst after water.

That is our water! That is our happiness! What shall we do in respect thereof? All is ruin!

The towns are destroyed. Upper Egypt has become dry.

The residence is overturned in a minute.

The chain of disasters which struck the people of Egypt, according to this document, conforms perfectly with the Qur'anic account of these matters. This papyrus, which closely parallels the catastrophes which struck Egypt in the time of Pharaoh, once again demonstrates the Qur'an to be divine in origin.



The Plagues of Egypt,” Admonitions of Ipuwer 2:5-6, www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/plagues.html.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 2:10, www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/plagues.html.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 5:12, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 10:3-6, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 6:3, www.students.itu.edu.tr/~kusak/ipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer, www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/plagues.html.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 2:10, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 3:10-13, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 2:11, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm.
Admonitions of Ipuwer 7:4, www.geocities.com/regkeith/linkipuwer.htm
Rabbi Mordechai Becher, “The Ten Plagues – Live From Egypt,” Ohr Somayach Institutions, www.ohr.org.il/special/pesach/ipuwer.htm.

 Thamud, one of the perished nation, lived in a valley which is about two hundred meters above sea level, it is also surrounded by tall mountains with 1200 meters average height.

    The account of the Holy Quran about these nations shows that they were skilled in stone sculpture, Allah gifted them with many bounties and that they led luxurious life.

    When God sent them a prophet from among themselves, they belied him and hold his name to obloquy and ridicule; they attacked him with abusive words. When their great prophet persisted in teaching them God's word, they set as a condition to believe that he should bring them a she-camel out of a huge rock.

     The holy Quran explanation books say  that the she-camel that God sent to the tribe of Prophet Saleh came out a huge rock, this rock lies isolated in the area where they lived.

     The expounders of the Holy Quran say that Prophet Saleh came to his tribe to admonish them to believe and warn them of the consequences of unbelief, they asked for a sign to believe; they pointed to a large rock and said:

   "Can you see this large rock? We want you to get out of this rock a she-camel with a baby in its belly; they started to set many conditions in these she-camels, they even were particulars and choosy. The prophet said' So what will you do if God gives you His sign? Will you believe?'"  "Yes, we will." They said. So the prophet prayed to God and God answered his prayer and a huge camel went out from the rock, it was exactly as they asked. When the say this miracle, some believed and some didn't.

     Some readers might ask how the expounders got the information they wrote down in their books from, they have recorded in their books information about the camel, description about the rock and even the names of the people who conspired to kill it.

    It is narrated that the prophet gave his companions a lot of information about this tribe and how they were perished. The prophet and his companions passed by " Alhager", the place in which the prophet  Saleh and his tribe lived in" on his way back from Tabouk invasion.

    Gabr narrated that  when the prophet passed by "Al-Hajer" (the habitations of Thamud), he said: " O' people don't ask for signs the same way Thamud did." Those were the people to whom Prophet Saleh was sent, and they asked him for a sign sent by God to them, so God created out for them a she-camel out of a rock they determined.

    Narrated Al-Boukhary, narrated the son of Umar that the prophet passed by the place where the habitations of Thmud were, he ordered them not to drink from its well … so the people  said :" we have already kneed our flour, so the prophet ordered them to spill the water they got and to drink from the water the she-camel used to drink from, and as to the flour they kneed, he ordered them to feed their animals on.

     We can conclude that the prophet must have determined the rock which the she-camel went out from, since he determined the cave that the she-camel used to shelter herself in and the fountain which she drank from; also the prophet must have given all the information that the expounders of the Holy Quran wrote down in their books without being attributed to the prophet.

      As to the features of the rock concerned, we can compare its features as mentioned in  the books of expounding the Holy Quran  and these of the rocks that are  existent in the valley, we shall depend on Google earth programme.

      The prophet and his companions passed by the valley in which there used to be the habitations of Thamud. Those people, in order to believe, asked their prophet' Saleh' to show a sign  or a miracle to prove his prophethood , and they determined the rock from which this she-camel should come from, this rock  had to be massive and the she-camel must be pregnant and also parturient, they also determined  the rock by a certain  name which is " Al-kataba'.

     Their Prophet agreed and put them under the commitment that they should believe if God showed this sign to them  and they agreed. He started to pray to his Lord to answer his prayer and bring them a she-camel from the rock so that they believed. God answered his prayer and the rock cleft asunder and the she-camel went out from it exactly as they wanted; on seeing it some believed and some did not.


       If we look at the picture keenly, we will see a huge rock covered with blackness, and this rock is located in isolated place in the upper part of the valley to the right. This rock is so huge and this makes it looks much like a mountain; it has odd appearance and this lays credence to the claim that those people used to worship their idols around it, its longest part amounts to(1500 M), and its widest part is about(700m), the highest hill on it reaches (100m) above  the surrounding area. We will give a plethora of evidences that this rock was the one from which the she-camel went out from.

      The name of the rock is" Al-Kataba" which can be translated" the writing" , the word is a present participle in Arabic, if you look closely at the picture you will find it taking the shape of "the palm of hand", and what look like fingers come out from the rock.

      Nowadays people call this rock" Al-Hwar mount", the word Hwar means" the baby of the she-camel", the significance of this name lies in the fact that the baby of the she-camel came back to his mother and went into it after it foamed three times, these were reference to the fact that the calamity would befall them after three days.

      We can deduce the second proof from the narration that says" the stone has moved then cleft asunder to let a she-camel go out", a close look at the rock supports this narration; there is a subside in the ends of the rock, one of these subsides reaches(80) meters. Surely the going out of the she-camel must have caused such a malformation  in the rock and that is why the corners of the rock subsided to be evidence to the emergence of the she-camel from the rock.

    It is amazing that there are only two rocks which carry the sign of subsiding, they are near each other, and this is a proof that the she-camel went out from it.

    The third evidence is that there is a black volcanic crater which takes the form of a she-camel in the sitting position, the length of the crater is fifty meter and the width is about twenty meters. The existence of this crater poses many questions that geologists can give answers too. Though the rock is big, it can't bear the signs of the explosion of a volcano because, if ever a volcano happened in it, it could have changed into pieces. One more question; the crater outline is clear and it has a geometrical shape which is different from the usual shapes of the volcanoes.

     One more significant point; there is no traces of lava, this means that the volcano had erupted for a short time and the power of the explosion was so great that the lava gushed out were thrown away in the surrounding area.

     I will explain how this punishment was inflicted on the tribe of Saleh after they killed the she-camel, this can give answers to these questions, in the following holy verses God says what means:

"And O my people! This she-camel of Allah is a symbol to you: leave her to feed on Allah's (free) earth, and inflict no harm on her, or a swift penalty will seize you!" (64) But they did ham-string her. So he said: "Enjoy yourselves in your homes for three days: (Then will be your ruin): (Behold) there a promise not to be belied!" (65) When Our Decree issued, We saved Salih and those who believed with him, by (special) Grace from Ourselves - and from the Ignominy of that day. For thy Lord - He is the Strong One, and able to enforce His Will. (66) The (mighty) Blast overtook the wrong-doers, and they lay prostrate in their homes before the morning,- (67) As if they had never dwelt and flourished there. Ah! Behold! for the Thamud rejected their Lord and Cherisher! Ah! Behold! removed (from sight) were the Thamud!(11:64-68)

Also God say what means in Sura(7)

Then they ham-strung the she-camel, and insolently defied the order of their Lord, saying: "O Salih! bring about thy threats, if thou art a messenger (of Allah)!" (77) So the earthquake took them unawares, and they lay prostrate in their homes in the morning! (78) So Salih left them, saying: "O my people! I did indeed convey to you the message for which I was sent by my Lord: I gave you good counsel, but ye love not good counsellors!" (7:77-79)

   Ibn-Katheer, a well-known Quran expounder comments on this event saying:" When it was Thursday, the first day of awaiting the punishment of God, their faces turned yellow-exactly as their prophet Saleh told them, when it was Friday their faces turned red and when it was Saturday their faces turned black, when it was Sunday they wore their coffins (after the punishment had been ascertained) and sat awaiting for the wrath of God; they didn't know what would befall them nor did they know where the punishment would come from.

 So when it was Sunday, a blast from heaven overtook them and they were seized by an earthquake and all died at the same time.

It is known that eruptions of volcanoes are always preceded by earthquakes and this what happened in this area; the earth began to shake violently under them and then the volcanoes began to erupt from three locations; these are the hills of the two mountains to the west of the city and the rock from which the she-camel went out from as it is clear in the Google earth picture.

     As we have already mentioned, the absence of the volcanic lava emphasized the fact that it abruptly, swiftly and violently erupted and  the sound of the volcano explosion caused all the people to die at once. This kind of volcanoes is termed" Spatter volcano', in this kind of volcanoes the stuff emitted is always composed of water vapor and carbon dioxide, and protruding edges are formed around the volcano as shown in this picture.

     The last picture shows that the volcanic crater on the mountain which is 1500 m ( to the west from the rock) has the same features of the volcanic crater, this proves that both happened simultaneously, it also proves that the gas pressure trapped was so high to the extent  that they all happened in three close areas, they all lie within an area of a few kilometers.

     The existence of the volcano on this mountain from which the she-camel went out is really amazing because the big volcano on the other mountain could have prevented the emergence of the volcano of the rock, but God wanted to show people His miracles as from the same place from which the she-camel came out, the volcano erupted, the going out of the she-camel must have weakened the crust and this led to the swift emission of the trapped gas accompanied with the sound of the explosion which people could not bear.

God says what means: For We sent against them a single Mighty Blast, and they became like the dry stubble used by one who pens cattle. (54: 31)

During the Meccan era the infidels of Quraish asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) to show them a sign to prove the authenticity of his Prophethood, whereupon Allah split the moon into two halves. The Holy Qur’an mentioned that and recorded it in the Verse: “The hour drew nigh and the moon was rent in twain.” (Quran 54: 1)

If such an event had not occurred, the Muslims would have had suspicions about their religion and would have deserted it. The infidels would have said that Muhammad had told a lie for the moon had not split and that they had not seen any such thing. But what had happened increased the faith of the faithful, and the infidels were perplexed before the miracle that they could not interpret except as continuous magic. Allah (SWT) says: “The hour drew nigh and the moon was rent in twain. And if they behold a portent they turn away and say: prolonged[1] magic. They denied (the Truth) and followed their own lusts. Yet everything will come to a decision.” (Quran 54: 1)

Historical documentation of the splitting of the moon:

The Indian history has recorded the name of one of their kings, Chakrawati Farmas, who is claimed to have witnessed the event of the splitting of the moon. An Indian historical manuscript [The Indian manuscript is kept in the India Office Library, London, which has reference number: Arabic, 2807, 152-173. It is quoted in the book “Muhammad Rasulullah,” by M. Hamidullah(2)] reports that: “There is a very old tradition in Malabar, South-West Coast of India, that Chakrawati Farmas, one of their kings had observed the splitting of the moon, the celebrated miracle of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) at Mecca, and learning, on inquiry, that there was a prediction of the coming of a Messenger of God from Arabia, he appointed his son as regent and set out to meet him. He embraced Islam at the hand of the Prophet, and when returning home, at the direction of the Prophet, he died at the port of Zafar. This information is in an Indian manuscript kept in the “India Office Library”, which contains several other details about King Chakrawati Farmas.

The Indian king that visited the Prophet (peace be upon him) is mentioned in the Books of Hadith. In al-Hakim’s Mustadrak[3] it is reported that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said: “Then the King of India gave Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) a gift, a bottle of pickle that had ginger in it. The Holy Prophet distributed it among his Companions. I also received a piece of it to eat.”

It is known that the king became a Companion through meeting the Messenger (peace be upon him) and believing in him and dying as such.

Islamic references preserve the story of this Companion, who came from India. Imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani has mentioned him in al-Isabah and in Lisan al-Mizan.[4] He says that his name was (Sirbanak), the name he is known by among the Arabs.

Related article (The Moon Cleft Asunder)


1.“Prolonged” means strong and intensive overriding all kinds of sorcery, as al-Shawkani says. There are other interpretations also.

2.The Indian manuscript is kept in the India Office Library, London, which has reference number: Arabic, 2807, 152-173. It is quoted in the book “Muhammad Rasulullah,” by M. Hamidullah.

3.Mustadrak al-Hakim/ kitab al-‘At’imah, Vol. 4, p. 150.

4.Al-Iasabah, Vol. 3, p. 279; Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. 10.

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