"The likeness of those who choose other patrons than Allah is as the likeness of the spider when she taketh unto herself a house, and lo! the frailest of all houses is the spider's house, if they but knew." (Quran 29:41)

This verse demonstrates in a significant way a bunch of scientific, social and religious facts which are very connected and representing a comprehensive picture of a type of life filled with hatred and instability.

A number of questions arise when one reads this verse, Why the frailest of all houses is is the spider's house?.....Would you attain protection or care if you choose other patrons than Allah?.......What is difference between the spider's house & the Muslim's house?


"…..and lo! the frailest of all houses is the spider's house, if they but knew.":

1.  From the physical point of view

A spider's web is the weakest of all houses.  It is composed of a group of intricate fine silk threads, mostly with large gaps in-between.  However, the spider's silk is one of the strongest substances available on earth, as it can withstand a tension force up to 42000 kg/cm2 which gives it strong stretching abilities.  This feature enables it to trap prey insects without being ruptured. Hence, this explains why Allah (SWT) said in his noble book "… the frailest (weakest) of houses" instead of "the flimsiest threads".  The spider's home remains to be the weakest and frailest of all homes despite its strong threads.1

2. From the spiritual point of view

A spider's house is the most fragile of all houses.  It is deprived of notions of love and mercy; the basis for any happy family.

Male & female: In some species, the female spider kills the male immediately after the fertilization process.  The female devours the male’s body, since the former is larger and fiercer than the latter.

Childeren: In some cases, the female mercilessly eats its offspring.  In other cases, the female dies after the complete fertilization of the eggs that it usually carries in a silk sac.  When the eggs hatch, the spiderlings come out to find themselves in an extremely crowded place.  The siblings then start fighting over food and/or space, until the battle ends with the survival of only a few spiderlings.  Those then shed their skin, break the wall of the egg sac and leave one after another, carrying along unpleasant memories.  When the mother dies, the spiderlings feed on her body.  Afterwards, the spiderlings spread out in the surrounding environment.  Every surviving female starts building its web.  Those who survive go through the same tragic experience all over again, which makes the spider's house the most brutal.  Allah (SWT) has set the spider’s house as an example of fragility and frailty because of the lack of strong family ties and lack of notions of mercy among members of the family.

"…if they knew":

Such facts were unknown to any human being during the time of the revelation, nor were they known for long centuries to follow.  They were discovered after intensive studies in the field of spider behavior had been carried out by hundreds of scientists over many decades.  The whole thing crystallized only in the last few decades of the twentieth century.  Therefore, Allah (SWT) has concluded the subject ayah by, "…if they knew".


When you choose other patrons than Allah you choose a spider's house

Every one in this world seeks to attain a happy life in which he can feel being protected and separated from any problems and dangers, a kind of life filled with internal and external peace.

And yes, some can achieve success in any field of life, they can gain a lot of money or get a good job, and on the level of societies, a society may achieve material progress and prosperity.

But like the spider male who seeks refuge and enjoyment in his mate's house, he may for a while get that, but at the end he is killed and within the enjoyment time itself, he has no internal peace or stability.

"The likeness of those who choose other patrons than Allah is as the likeness of the spider when she taketh unto herself a house, and lo! the frailest of all houses is the spider's house, if they but knew." (Quran 29:41)

People are thus oblivious of the one power which creates all the little powers, owns, gives, directs and uses them as it pleases. They forget that seeking support and protection from these little powers is just like a spider taking refuge in its web. It remains a small powerless insect that has no power within itself or its flimsy web. The only real support and protection for man is with God. This is the main truth which the Qur’ān takes special care to instill in the minds of believers. It makes their community stronger than all the powers that try to obstruct it.2

The only way to true peace and happiness is not in the spider's house "any temporary material success", but in choosing Allah to be your patron and protector.

The spider's house & The Muslim's house

 

The Muslim's house is a strong house which is built on love, mercy and care, in contrast with the spider's house which is built on the material benefits.3


In the Muslim's house: the husband has a great respect and appreciation when he is young and strong and working to make the living of this family and when he is weak and old, he still has all respect. It is only logical that the one who is naturally the physically and emotionally stronger of the two parents is made head of the household: the male. “…And they (women) have rights (over their husbands) similar (to the rights of their husbands) over them - according to what is equitable.  But men have a degree (of responsibility, etc.) over them…” (Quran 2:228)

In the spider's house: the male is only hosted for a while to make use of him by mating with the female, then he may be killed and eaten by this female or he may run away leaving this deceiving house. This case is like a lot of marriages in which the woman accept to marry someone to take advantage of his wealth or power then she leaves him after taking control.


In the Muslim's house: the mother has its high position that it can not be reached by anyone as she fills the house with compassion and mercy rising up children to be good persons, So when A man once consulted the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) about taking part in a military campaign. The Prophet asked the man if his mother was still living. When told that she was alive, the Prophet said: "(Then) stay with her, for Paradise is at her feet." (Al-Tirmidhi).

In the spider's house: in some cases, the female mercilessly eats its offspring.  In other cases, the female dies after the complete fertilization of the eggs that it usually carries in a silk sac.


In the Muslim's house: Children are the fruits and flowers of the house, they are surrounded by mercy from parents and love between each others. They are taught to respect and appreciate their parents. "Thy Lord hath decreed, that ye worship none save Him, and (that ye show) kindness to parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age with thee, say not "Fie" unto them nor repulse them, but speak unto them a gracious word. (23) And lower unto them the wing of submission through mercy, and say: My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they did care for me when I was little." (Quran 17:23-24)

In the spider's house: the children remain calm and obedient until they grow up and form their jaws and poisons then they start to fight the adults and kill them, you will see them eating their mother that previously ate the male. This also is like a lot of houses filled with hatred and injustice.


In the Muslim's house: the guest is welcomed and stay in atmosphere of peace and happiness in contrast to the spider's house in which anything gets in the web will live in terror until it is eaten by the spider.


This verse really presents a comprehensive social picture of our lives and it now our turn to choose a life filled with love and mercy or to live in the spider's house.


Notes:

1- Dr.Zaghloul Elnaggar, article entitled "The spider web".

2- Sayed Qutb, In the shade of Quran, "Surat Al'ankabaut".

3- Dr.Nazmi Khalil AbuAlata, article in arabic entitled " The Muslim's house and The spider's house".

 


 

Dedication

This new research is prepared to benefit the reader and is dedicated as scientific running alms to the spirit of my beloved parents, God bless their souls; that they may live in heaven.

Introduction

In this research we are going to unveil some of the treasures, jewels and pearls in miraculous sea of the Holy Quran of which its wonders and miracles that don’t stop to chase us: It was scientifically proved undoubtedly that the Holy Quran spoke about many scientific and universal facts 14 centuries ago before they were discovered and known by modern science.

We will live through this research with some facts the Holy Quran told us about or guided us to follow them and we will see that Quran spoke about these facts in a very scientific accurate language using Court of linguistic and very precise scientific expressions, proving the Quran’s God’s true words, and that prophet Mohammad (pbh) didn’t speak of his own accord but was inspired and dedicated by God’s words and blessing.

In this research I have chosen only one topic of the several topics of the miraculous nature of the Holy Quran which exceeded more than 1000 miraculous topics and it is about “the Islamic method of slaying animals (Zabah Halal) & Human health” which coincides with my field of specialization.

Between the Islamic method of slaying animals (Zabah Halal) & Human health

AL ZABAH or the Muslim method of slaying animals for food is an embodiment of Muslim conception of food hygiene and humaneness towards animals. This conception is based on what Allah the Creator of man, and in this context animal, revealed through His chosen persons Adam, Noah, Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Eisa (Jesus) And Mohammed SAS. The conception is neither national, notional, commercial nor Mohammedan. Practice of Prophet Jesuswas the same as that of his predecessors Musa and patriarchIbrahim (peace be upon them) and hence different from Romanand similar "to Muslim traditions.

AL ZABAH is different from every form of killing animals practiced in the West. As opposed to slaughter, AI Zabah, is well defined - a divinely ordained method with sanctions, rules and regulations.

AL ZABAH is the method of bleeding the animal. Less painful but very much like the bleeding of a donor (unlike the latter, the animal is bled to death).

The death of the animal is quickened by initiating a massive haemorrhage (as compared to bleeding a donor from a vein in the arm to collect 340 ml in 10 minutes approximately) by an appropriate cut (a sharp, deep one in the front of the neck).

AL ZABAH is Anaesthesia as we understand anaesthesia today, as opposed to stunning, the primitive form of anaesthesia man has abandoned years ago. The so-called Humane Killers are merely mechanized forms of stunning introduced to ensure a high thorough put (number of killed animals) to suite the mechanized meat packing industry. The pistol produced brain damage on the same principle as the Poleaxes - used before mechanization of meat industry.

AL ZABAH provides humanely, bloodless (hygienic and tasteful) meat like that of veal (white meat, of calf).

Two fundamental principles

Allah has laid down two fundamental principles concerning human health and humaneness to animals in context of slaying them for food.

The command of Allah embodying the said principles in the Qur'an reads as follows:-

"You are forbidden to eat that which dies of itself; and blood and swine's flesh; and that, on which the name of any besides Allah has been invoked; that which has been strangulated, or killed by a blow, or by a fall or by the horns of another beast; and that which has been eaten up by a wild beast except what you shall kill (purify) yourself; that which has been sacrificed on idols. It is likewise unlaw-ful for you to make division by casting lots with arrows. This is an impiety."

TASMIAH

Before the fatal incision is made the slayer has to pronounce the words" In the name of Allah" the pronouncement is called Tasmiah. Pronouncement of these words alone and nothing but these words is lawful. The Tasmiah gives animal the quietness and calmness.

Purifying animal meat

It is clear from the above that animals dying naturally and/or accidentally from any of the accidents enumerated above are unlawful unless killed before they are dead. They are purified by draining away the impure blood. This allowance (legal provision) – because of which believer hastens to bleed the animal constitutes an incentive to be kind to the animal. Natural death can be agonizing arid death from the accidental injuries enumerated above is certainly agonizing. The agony suffered by animal in whatever case is terminated by rendering it insensitive to pain - by bleeding it.

Physical, Physiological and Psychological Reasons

Some of the reasons of the prohibition of blood can be easily understood. Blood carries nutrients and chemicals to the tissues and brings back the waste products of tissue metabolism into the circulation. These waste products of tissue metabolism are harmful to the body and are separated from the blood in the kidney. The concentrated solution of these harmful chemicals is excreted in the form of urine. Urine is thus the part of fluid blood.

If the objective is to drain away all the fluid blood in the circulation then what are the physiological and anatomical requisites. It is obvious that blood contained in a closed circuit can only be let out by cutting the blood vessels. Deployment of an incision to cut, vessels and the overlying skin is therefore absolutely essential. The larger the blood vessel, and greater number that is cut open, greater will be the amount of blood poured out through them. It is also obvious that the best place anatomically to cut these vessels is the neck where four major vessels are accessible, lying not far from the skin. It is also evident that the longer the heart beats from the moment the vessels are cut open and the more strongly it beats, the greater will be the blood loss. Conversely the animal which is half dead will bleed only half the time. It is also understandable that the stronger the suction effects of the lungs in the form of rapid and deep breathing greater will be the amount of blood sucked into the heart from the periphery, in turn to be pumped out, and thus thrown out of the body. Rapid breathing also assures adequate oxygenation of tissues and prevents stagnant an anoxia (lack of oxygen) which interferes with the P.H. of the tissues. P.H. of the blood is very important in extracting the blood from the tissues and influences the keeping quality of the meat. It is also conceivable that the squeezing action of the muscles on the blood vessels is essential to pour out the last drop of blood. All these factors are operative only and only when the blood vessels in the neck are severed while the animal is conscious with a normal vaso motor centre, a normal heart and normal circulatory and normal respiratory centre.

Students of physiology would appreciate that Zabah induces haemorrhagic shock, in which all the fluid blood is attracted into the circulation and escapes through the cut vessels, whereas the opposite happens when the animals are stunned first. Stunning in addition to being painful is less efficient way of bleeding. In stunning the animal cannot be bled unless the animal is brought under control by which time the animal could be dead (its heart stopped due to shock) there is then no point in bleeding.

Islamic slaying helps to purify animal by draining away the impure blood

Arterial Baroreceptors

Arterial baroreceptors are vitally important in the short term (seconds to minutes) control of mean arterial pressure (MAP) but are unimportant in determining the long-term level of MAP. This based primarily on two observations: first, those baroreceptors rapidly reset to the prevailing level of MAP and second, that total baroreceptor enervation has no lasting effect on the average daily MAP, although the variability of MAP is increased dramatically. This is the similar case when slaying animals and in purifying process of the meat from the blood, in a very short term (seconds to minutes). The Arterial Baroreceptors & MAP have thus a very essential action during Zabh.

Statement made by Lord Horder, G.C.V.O., M.D., F.R.C.P.

“Careful and critical scrutinizing of this method of slaughtering leaves me in no doubt whatever that it is fraught with less risk of pain to the animal than any other method at present practiced”.

Statement made by Sir C. A. Lovatt Evans, D.Sc. F.R.S.

(Emeritus Professor of Physiology, London University)

“My opinion as a physiologist is that I should think this method is as humane as any other method in use or likely to be brought into use for the purpose. To consider that the animal suffers appreciablepain is, in my opinion, quite absurd. I consider the method to be equal to any”.


BY: Dr. Jawad Hidmi (PhD) Applied Poultry Science and Pathology / London Member of the World Poultry Science Association (WPSA) / London / The Hague (Netherlands). Member of the Medical Scientific Society - Harvard (USA).Member of the American Meat Science Association (AMSA)-(USA)
E- mail address:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


References

1.Islamic Medical Associationpublications

2.George Sales. Translation 1825 Ed.

3.Pickthal. GloriousQuran.

4.Qousuf Ali's translation.

5.Hedaya. Original translationundertakenby Charles Hamiltonon the order of the Governor of Bengal. New edition edited byStandish Grove Graddy 1870.

6.Humane Killing of animals. UniversitiesFederation of AnimalWelfare.

7.Symposium on Humane method of Slaughter and Slaughterhouse techniques. UniversitiesFederation of Animal Welfare.

8.Pistol versus pole axe. Miss Macnaghten.

9.Farmers & Stock Breeders. "Pig under stress".

10.Impact International. 25th Feb. 9th Mar 1972. Curioussagaof humane slaughter.

11.A critical study of electric stunning, the Jewish method ofslaughter by Rabbi Solomon DavidSassoon.

12.Wylie's textbook of Anaesthesia. Grays Anatomy.

13.Wrights. Principle of Physiology.

14.Callow. E. H. Food Hygiene. Cambridge. 1952. P.14.

15.Thornton’s text book of meat inspection.

16.British Encyclopedia 1786 - "Islamic education like Islamic Sciences evolved round theology".

17.Oxford English Dictionary - meaning of "Slaughter".

18.Modern Egypt. Earl Krommer part II p.179-181

19.Google Documents Web site.

20.Baroreceptors and the long-term control of blood pressure.T. N. Thrasher, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD21201, USA. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Hidmi. Jawad.“Poultry slaughtering plants,mechanism and hygiene”.2003


The Miracle of Producing Milk (from the contents of the intestines and (then) from blood)

“Verily in cattle there is a lesson for you: We give you to drink of what is inside their bellies, from among chyme and from among blood, pure milk palatable to those who drink it” (Quran 16:66)

Introduction

Human beings have long realized the relationship between the milk secreted and the food eaten by the animal and noticed that the animal would die if it were not provided with food. But they did not know the process of changing the food into milk, flesh, bone, or any other substance.

Modern science has shown us the steps that lead to the formation of milk that is palatable to the drinkers, thus revealing such Signs of Allah, the Most Kind, All-Aware of everything, as agree with what the Qur’an has told us concerning the synthesis of milk in the bellies of cattle, and showing the great Grace of the Creator on His slaves.

Historical Chronology of Scientific Discoveries:

Man could not know how milk is synthesized in the bellies of cattle except after he discovered the mysteries of the digestive system and learned the functions of its organs, and after the discovery of the blood circulation and its connection to the absorption of the nutrients from the intestines and their entrance into the blood. It took a long period of time extending for around five centuries to develop the required instruments and to discover the secrets.

A.  The development of the instruments and devices of research:

Experimental science has followed precise methods to find out the functions of the organs of the digestive system after the invention of the instruments by which experiments and researches were carried out to arrive at precise conclusions. This was not realized but recently. Biologists and physicians in the 14th and 15th centuries were unable to translate their scientific observations into drawings and pictures, and they were less able to distribute them among the students because of the unavailability of the means of publication.

Progress in the scientific instruments used in discovering the mysteries of the process of digestion went on in successive steps till lots of the secrets of digestion were revealed to the researchers.

B.  The history of learning the functions of the organs of the digestive system:

Scientific discoveries concerning the functions of the organs of the digestive system continued from 1833 till the twentieth century, when the successive steps of the digestive process could be illustrated, such as the degradation of the proteins by the gastrointestinal enzyme chains. The structure and effect of the most important digestive juices were shown also, besides confirming the existence of a lot of enzymes that play a key role in the process of digesting the food, such as lactase, lipase and protease, etc. In addition, the effect of the various enzymes functioning in the different stages of the digestive process was discovered.

In 1902 AD Bayliss and Starling together discovered the hormone of secretin. In 1911 AD W. V. Canon illustrated the mechanic factors involved in the process of digestion. In 1913 AD R. Glinard presented a study showing the movement of the intestines recorded on a film.

C.  The history of the blood circulation:

Ibn al-Nafis discovered the lesser blood circulation. Prior to that it had been said that blood was purified in the cavity of the heart. Andrea Alpago translated the work of Ibn al-Nafis at the beginning of the sixteenth century into Latin and the translation was published in Venice in 1547 AD. Thereafter we had Harvey’s researches on blood circulation and they were among the most remarkable researches before the 19th century.

In 1877 AD Laude Bernard proved that the amount of glucose in the blood was constant and that any disturbance in it would cause diabetes. He corrected the concept of Lavoisier and Laplace that the lungs were the center of combustion by saying that combustion takes place in the various tissues.

Marey (1830-1904) improved the technologies of studying the work of the heart and the lungs. His investigations covered the blood circulation (1863, 1881) and the physiology of movement or motion.

In the field of  the physiology of blood circulation since the 19th century several things have been studied, such as the nerves that modify and accelerate the heart, the vascular movement, and other phenomena that are involved in the arterial pressure. These things were investigated extensively during the 20th century.

After using radioactive isotopes the exchanges that take place at the capillaries were better understood.

Thus the way milk is synthesized from the food eaten by cattle was discovered after man had discovered the secrets of digestion and its stages, the functions of the organs of the digestive system, blood circulation, the function of the heart and blood vessels and their routes throughout the body and their relationships with the digestive system and all other parts of the body including the udders and mammary glands of cattle.

The Stages of Forming Pure Palatable Milk

Milk in cattle is synthesized through precise coordination between the digestive system, circulatory system and the reproductive system through the mammary glands in the udders and other organs, in exact calculated steps, for Allah (SWT) assigned to every organ a function and specific duties to do so that we finally have pure milk palatable to those drinking it. The steps of synthesizing milk can be summed up as follows:

Cow digestive system

 

1.     Digestion:

Digestion is of various types: mechanical digestion, chemical digestion and microbial digestion by means of the enzymes of the microbes in the rumen of the animal. The process of digestion starts in the mouth where the fodder is mechanically broken down into pieces and mixed with the saliva that contains the enzyme (amylase) that achieves the initial digestion that is followed by mechanical, microbial and chemical digestion in the compound stomach.

Then the mass of food is returned to the mouth to be chewed once more and mixed with saliva in the process of rumination. It is then swallowed again and acted upon by the bacteria of he rumen where the carbohydrates and proteins are degraded. This is followed by the enzymatic digestion in the true stomach by means of such enzymes as the pepsin and rennin.

The processes of digestion lead to the change of the food into chyme. When the chyme moves into the small intestine it is exposed to the digestive enzymes in the intestines, pancreas and the bile gland in the liver. Thus the nutrients are degraded from very complex particles into simple particles; starch and complex carbohydrates are converted into simple saccharides; lipids are converted into fatty acids; proteins into amino acids and peptides. As to vitamins, minerals and water, they need no digestion before being absorbed. The solid chyme, after being digested in the intestines, is converted into soft substance.

2.   The extraction from chyme:

The villi in the small intestines absorb the degraded nutrients by various means. These nutrients then reach the capillaries that lie under the epithelial tissue and from there they enter the larger vessels and get involved in the blood circulation.

3.   The extraction from blood:

Then blood carries these nutrients to the various parts of the body including the cells of udders where the components of milk are extracted from blood.

4.   The synthesis of milk in the udder:

The udder is compared to an industrial compound. It is organized into lobes, with each lobe made up of many lobules. Each lobule contains 150-220 microscopic alveoli. Alveoli are sack-like structures where milk is synthesized and secreted. An alveolus is the discrete milk- producing unit consisting of a lumen for collecting milk lined by a single layer of epithelial cells.

Allah (SWT) has made each cell in this industrial unit an integrated self-contained unit that changes the raw materials inside it that come from blood into a droplet of milk secreted into the lumen. These precursors leave the blood and enter the extra-cellular fluid between the capillaries and the epithelial cells. The precursors are then taken up from the extra-cellular fluid through the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell. Once inside the cell the precursors enter the appropriate synthetic pathway. In addition, some preformed proteins, such as immunoglobulins, are transported intact through the cell. There are five routes by which milk precursors or components enter to produce milk in the alveolar lumen, including uptake of amino acids, uptake of sugars and salts, update of milk fat precursors, uptake of preformed proteins, immunoglobulins and the paracellular pathway.

The Udder

Let us now follow the track of each precursor of milk and what happens to it during its journey across the mammary cell:

1. Amino acids:

Amino acids are absorbed through the basal membrane of the cell. Amino acids are convalently bound together to form proteins at the polysomes (poly–ribosomes) on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Newly synthesized proteins are transferred from the RER to Golgi apparatus, where they are processed for transport out of the cell through the secretory vesciles that bud from Golgi. At the apical membrane of the cell the secretory vesicle fuses with the inner surface of the apical membrane, which produces an opening through which the vesicle releases its protein contents into the lumen of the alveolus. Thus the protein components of milk are available now.

CELLULAR MECHANISMS FOR MILK SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION

 

Alveolar Cell from lactating mammary gland. N, nucleus; TJ, tight junction; GJ, gap junction; D, desmosome; SV, secretory vesicle; FDA, fat-depleted adipocyte; PC, Plasma Cell; BM, basement membrane; ME, cross section through process of myoepithelial cell; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum. See text for explanation of secretory pathways I (exocytosis), II (lipid), III (apical transport), IV (transcytosis) and V (paracellular pathway).

 

2. Lactose:

Next we see how another component of the milk. It is the lactose that, with the permission of Allah (SWT) makes milk paalatable to those who drink it. The Glucose that is carried by the blood enters the cell via the basolateral membrane. Some of it is converted to galactose. Both glucose and galactose enter the Golgi apparatus and enter into a reaction resulting in the formation of lactose. The formation of lactose in the Golgi results in drawing water into the cell and into the Golgi; and ultimately becoming part of milk. Thus lactose and water are added to the proteins, waiting for other important milk components, such as lipids.

3. Lipids

The precursors of milk fat synthesis are also  taken up by the epithelial cells at the basolateral membrane. Acetate and B-hydroxybutyrate are important precursors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary cells in some species (ruminants, especially). These precursors along with preformed fatty acids, glycerol, and monoacyl glycerides are absorbed at the basolaterl membrane, to be used for the synthesis of milk fat triglycerides on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in small droplets. Numerous small lipid droplets will fuse together as the growing lipid droplet moves towards the apical membrane. At the apical membrane Allah (SWT) directs the large lipid droplet to force  out the apical membrane of the cell and follow the previous milk components that have stored in the lumen of the alveoli. Note that inside the cell, the lipid is not membrane bound and is called a lipid droplet, while after secretion in the lumen, the milk lipid droplets are surrounded by a membrane and called lipid globules.

4. Immunoglobulins:

Milk still requires other components, such as immunoglobulins. They pass across the epithelial cell barrier essentially unchanged from their form in the blood. They bind to specific receptors on the basolateral surface of the cells, are taken “into” the cell in endocytic (transport) vesicles and transported to the apical side of the cell via those vesicles, where the membrane of the transport vesicles fuses with the inner surface of the apical membrane of the cell and releases the immunoglobulins into the lumen of the alveolus. As the transport vesicles traverse the cell they do not seem to interact with the Golgi, secretory vesicles or lipid droplets.

5. Other components:

Water, leukocytes, some ions and minerals take their way to the lumen through tight junctions between epithelial cells.

Thus the journey ordained by Allah for the components of milk comes to an end. No human being whatever his knowledge or technologies can imitate a single mammary cell that produces milk. But Allah, the All-Knowing , All-Powerfull, has made the mammary cell, which cannot be seen except through a microscope, a complete industrial compund to produce milk nonstop in living oragansims that Allah (SWT) cause to reproduce prgeny that need milk. Allah (SWT) sets aside a large part of that milk for human beings and  reminds them of His Grace on them in His Saying:

“Verily in cattle there is a lesson for you: We give you to drink of what is inside their bellies, from among chyme and from among blood, pure milk palatable to those who drink it” (Quran 16:66)

Milk composition

 

The Interpretation of the Verse

The linguistic meaning:

Al-Farth (chyme) is what is in the rumen.

It is said that it is al-Sarjin (dung) as long as it is still is the rumen.

The Sayings of Commentators:

Commentators differed as to the meaning of the noble Verse because they differed in understanding the indications of some of the words. Some of them thought that the utterance “min baina” (literally: from between) meant “from some” of the chyme and “from some” of the blood, while some others thought that it implied the place, i.e., from a position between blood and chyme. Following is a summary of what the commentators (may Allah bestow His Mercy on them) said:

1.     In a weak hadith attributed to Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) we read: “An animal eats the fodder and when it is settled in its rumen it grinds it, in which case it is separated into chyme at the bottom, milk in the middle and blood at the top.” This hadith was narrated by a number of commentators, such as al-Baidawi, al-Qurtubi, Abu al-Su’ud, al-Shawkani, Ibn al-Jawzi in Zad al-Masir, al-Alusi in Ruh al-Ma’ani and others. Some of these commentators commented on the statement attributed to Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) after they noticed that it contradicted observed reality. Abu al-Su’ud, al-Baidawi and al-Alusi said: “Milk and blood are not formed in the rumen.” In Ruh al-Ma’ani, al-Alusi says: “Al-Razi commented on that, i.e., Ibn ‘Abbas’ statement, saying: ‘One may say that milk and blood are not formed in the rumen, which is verified through observation, for animals are frequently slaughtered and nothing of that sort is seen in their stomachs. If what is mentioned in it were produced it would be seen occasionally. What is proved wrong through observation is invalid and should not be depended on.’”

2.     Some commentators say that chyme is the source of both blood and milk; namely, blood comes out of chyme and milk comes out of chyme, too. This is said by al-Baidawi when he interpreted the statement attributed to Ibn ‘Abbas by saying: “If the hadith should be  authentic, it must mean that its middle will be the precursors of milk and its upper part will be the precursors of blood because neither of them is formed in the rumen.” Al-Shawkani said the same in Fath al-Qadir.

3.     Many commentators mentioned what agreed with the findings of modern science that state that the components of milk are extracted from chyme and then from blood. Among those who carried this opinion were al-Qurtubi, Abu al-Su’ud and the author of Ma’ani al-Qur’an, and in Zad al-Masir by Ibn al-Jawzi, where we read: “Chyme is what is in the rumen, which means that milk has been food. From the food blood has been extracted and chyme has been left behind, and from the blood there has been extracted ‘pure milk, palatable to those who drink it.’”

So, we notice the difference among the commentators concerning this issue because of lack of scientific knowledge at their times. Yet, Allah (SWT) guided them to correctly understand the utterance “from between” as meaning “from part of the chyme and then from part of the blood” although they did not know the way that people did not discover except several centuries after the revelation of this noble Verse.

4.     The word “Khalisan” (pure, not mixed with other things) in the Verse is another clue that the components of milk are extracted from blood after it has been extracted from chyme. Al-Tabari hints to this meaning by saying that it (milk) is prevented from mixing with blood and chyme and so they do not mix with it.

But the commentators (may Allah bestow His Mercy on them) did not refer to this explicit meaning but they only said that “Khalisan” (pure, not mixed with other things) implied that “milk did not carry the color of blood or the smell of chyme,” as al-Baidawi and al-Baghawi said, or “the redness of blood or the dirt of chyme,” as al-Qurtubi and al-Shawkani said, or “free from the impurities that characterize blood and chyme,” as Abu al-Su’ud and the Co-authors of Tafsir al-Jalalain said.

The Aspect of the Miracle:

Prior to the invention of the instruments of anatomy in the last two centuries nobody knew the mysteries of what was going on in the digestive system in humans and animals and the functions of this complicated system and its relationship with blood circulation and the stages of milk synthesis in the bellies of cattle.

After the manufacture of instruments and scientific experiments became mature and advanced throughout the centuries, man came to learn that the components of milk are extracted from chyme after the digestion of the food, and run in the blood stream to reach the mammary glands in the udders of females that extract the components of milk from blood retaining no traces of chyme or blood in the milk. In addition lactose is added to the milk in the alveolar lumens to make it palatable to those who drink it.

These secrets were unknown to human beings and they did not discover them except after a long journey of scientific experiments and researches that took centuries and in which there were used unprecedented instruments that were manufactured for the first time by the researchers. But the Holy Qur’an disclosed these secrets to its readers in the most beautiful and most concise utterance 14 hundred years ago. Who then taught Muhammad (peace be upon him), apart from all humans living at that time, the secrets of the digestive system and the circulatory system and the subtle processes going on in the mammary glands other than Allah, Who knows the secrets in earth and heavens and Who knows the mysteries of what He has created? This is enough evidence that the Qur’an is revealed carrying the Knowledge of Allah (SWT) and that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His Messenger. Allah (SWT) says:

“But Allah bears witness that what He has sent to you He has sent from his (own) knowledge, and the angels bear witness: but Allah is enough for witness.” (Quran 4:166)


In a very distinctive story told by the holy Quran about the prophet Solomon and a group of ants, Quran stated that ants can speak to each others.

"Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: 'O ants! enter Your dwellings, lest Sulaimân (Solomon) and his hosts crush you, while they perceive not.' So He [Sulaimân (Solomon)] smiled, amused at her speech." (Quran 27:18-19)

This fact stated in Quran 1400 years ago, and in a very astonishing accordance between Quran and scientific discoveries, science magazine published on [6 February 2009] a new scientific research entitled (Queen Ants Make Distinctive Sounds That Are Mimicked by a Butterfly Social Parasite), and again science proves that Quran can not be told by human, it must be revealed by God the creator of this universe.

The new discovery says "Advances in audio technology have enabled scientists to discover that ants routinely talk to each other in their nests. Most ants have a natural washboard and plectrum built into their abdomens that they can rub together to communicate using sound.

 

Using miniaturized microphones and speakers that can be inserted unobtrusively into nests; researchers established that the queens can issue instructions to their workers.

The astonished researchers, who managed to make the first recordings of queen ants “speaking”, also discovered that other insects can mimic the ants to make them slaves.

Rebel's large blue butterfly is one of about 10,000 creatures that have a parasitic relationship with ants and has now been found to have learnt to imitate the sounds as well as using chemical signals.

The butterfly's caterpillars are carried by ants into the nests where they beg for food and are fed by the workers. When a colony is disturbed the ants will rescue the caterpillars before their own broods.

Research several decades ago had shown that ants were able to make alarm calls using sounds, but only now has it been shown that their vocabulary may be much bigger and that they can “talk” to each other.

Professor Jeremy Thomas, of the University of Oxford, said improvements in technology had made the discoveries possible because it meant the ants could be recorded and subjected to playbacks without becoming alarmed.

By placing miniature speakers into the nest and playing back sounds made by a queen, the researchers were able to persuade ants to stand to attention.

“When we played the queen sounds they did 'en garde' behaviour. They would stand motionless with their antennae held out and their jaws apart for hours - the moment anyone goes near they will attack,” he said.

He described how the ants would press their antennae to the speaker just as they would seek to greet another ant in the nest.

Professor Thomas said it remained unclear how much the ants relied on sound for language but he suspected that further analysis would reveal a wider vocabulary than had been seen yet.

“The most important discovery is that within the ant colony different sounds can provoke different reactions,” he said. “I would be very surprised if we didn't get different types of sound.

“It's within the power of the ant to play different tunes by changing the rhythm with which they rub.”

He added that the detection of the role of sounds provided the “final piece of the jigsaw” to explain how Rebel's large blue caterpillars survive in ants' nests and should help to guide conservationists in trying to save the endangered European mountain species.

Francesca Barbero, of the University of Turin, said: “Our new work shows that the role of sound in information exchange within ant colonies has been greatly underestimated.”

Karsten Schönrogge, of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in Oxfordshire, said the mimicry by the caterpillars was so convincing that the ants afforded them higher status than their own young. They will even slaughter their own young to feed the interlopers when food is scarce.

This new discovery and others in each scientific field witness to the divinity of this book and the unlimited power of Allah (SWT).

Finally allPraise be to Allah, the Lord of the entire universe.


“There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 38)

Some interpretations of The ayah:

· Ibn-Kathir (may Allah have mercy on his soul) wrote what can be summarized as: Mujahid said: Every categorized species is identified by its name. Qutada said: There is a separate community for each: Birds, Man and the Jinn. Sady said: “…except that they are nations like you.” i.e. creatures like you.þ

· The book ‘In the Shade of the Qur’an,’ (Fi-Dhilal Al-Qur’an), may Allah (SWT) have mercy on its author, stated: “… it is an amazing reality, which put animals, birds and insects into communities that have their own characteristics, systems and structure as well. The more advanced man’s knowledge becomes, this reality becomes increasingly evident. Nevertheless, Man’s knowledge of a specific creature does not add or change anything to that species! This ayah and these evident seen facts show Allah’s (SWT) knowledge of the seen and the unseen as well as His (SWT) planning for everything…

· The writer of the book, Safwat Al-Bayan (may Allah have mercy on his soul) says that this part of the ayah “…except that they are nations like you,” refers to all the different communities that are similar to man. They all live and die, are in need of Allah (SWT) for their livelihood, organizing their matters, the subjection of the settlement of their affairs to His omnipotence …etc.

Scientific implications in this ayah:

Biologists have discovered more than 1.75 million different types of species which exist on this earth and are living on land, at sea and in the air. In addition, paleontologists have discovered more than a quarter of a million extinct species. Taking the average number of yearly discoveries, of new species, in these two fields into consideration, scientists estimate that the expected total number of different species present on this earth may be as high as 4.5 million. Each of these species is probably represented by billions of successive and contemporary individuals.


There are more than 1.75 million different types of species exist on this earth

It has been found that the life expectancy of each species ranges from 0.5 to 5 million years (an average of 2.75 million years) after which they normally become extinct. The oldest fossil found on earth is 3.7 to 3.8 billion years old. It is, then, evidently a near impossible task to discover every one of those billions of individuals out of those millions of species that ever existed or even exist on this earth no matter what advancements, knowledge, or means of calculations man has. This is why it became important to categorize them as the ayah, we are looking at, has done, There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 38).

The ayah refers to the main type of classification which is the species. It is divided into groups which include numbers of this species living together in specific areas in the world, each forming a community of its own. For example, humans are divided into different races, each representing a population and all these different populations descend from one father, Adam (Peace and blessings be upon him) whom Allah (SWT) describes by saying what can be translated as, “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwâ (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allâh through Whom you demand (your mutual rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allâh is Ever an All-Watcher over you.” (Surat an-Nisâ' (The Women):1).

And He (SWT) says what can be translated as, “It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife [Hawwâ’ (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her…” (Surat Al-A'râf (The Heights):189).

And He (SWT) says what can be translated as, “He created you (all) from a single person (Adam); then made from him his wife [Hawwâ’ (Eve)]. …” (Surat Az-Zumar (The Groups):6)

The Prophet (SAWS) described the origin of human from one man by saying, “You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust”. (Good Hadith, Sahih Al-Gamea’ Al-Albany No. 1787).

The ayah that we are discussing in surat Al-An’am is referring to the fact that just as humans are divided into different races, each representing a population having the same origin, the same is true for every other species on earth, each is divided into populations having the same origin. Despite being in some ways independent, the different species have shared characteristics with other species. This proves the oneness of the creator as all creations, starting from the atom to the solar system to the galaxy, or from a single living cell to the human body, all are clearly synchronized and based on the same paired system which is a witness of Allah’s (SWT) creativity, divinity and power as well as the attributes of being the one and only creator who is above all His creations.

Types of living organisms (species) in the Noble Qur’an and in the science of classification.

In an attempt to gather this infinite number of creatures, biologists classified them into two main categories: Animals and Plants. They defined plants as those living organisms that are fixed to the ground through their roots. Allah (SWT) has given the plants the ability to produce their own food. Animals, on the other hand, have been granted the ability to move and obtain food from the surrounding environment from which they eat and digest.

This classification into these two main categories prevailed until the beginning of the 20th Century, despite discovering a lot of living organisms which were very difficult to place in either of these groups. These living organisms were discovered using the microscope which was invented in the 17th Century. They included a lot of tiny single-celled organisms. Some of them had some resemblance to plants and others had some resemblance to animals, while a third category had some resemblance to both plants and animals.

These single-celled living things were eventually classified as a third category known as “Protista”. With the discovery of bacteria, it was found that they could not be put in any of the three main classifications- Protista, Plants or Animals as it lacked a nucleus which was a characteristic of all the three groups. Similar to the bacteria there was another simple type of living organism known as “Blue Green Algae”, which was also a single-celled organism with no definite nuclei and the carriers of the genetic codes are spread in the cell’s liquid.

With the discovery of “Viruses”, it appeared that they can be distinguished from the other organisms as they live on other organisms. It was found that a virus could replicate by inserting its simple genetic material into the cells of an animal, plant or protista. Since the genetic material in these primitive living things are not linked in a definite way, such viruses are sometimes referred to as “Naked genes”.

Based on these findings, living organisms were classified into 4 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae and Animalia. Studies then proved that fungi were considered to be a different living organism that should be put into a separate category. Fungi are known to absorb their nutrition through the walls of their cells, which is a characteristic of plants. However, unlike plants, they do not produce their own food. Moreover, they do not swallow up and digest their food as animals do. Therefore, they had to be classified into a new category. By separating fungi into a new category, there became 5 different kingdoms of living things:

1. Kingdom Monera: this includes: bacteria, blue green algae and spirochetes. They are normally single-celled organisms with no defined nucleus.

2. Kingdom Protista: this includes protozoa and all algae other than blue green algae. They are also single-celled organisms but with a defined nucleus.

3. Kingdom Fungi: this includes all kinds of mushrooms, molds, fungi, yeasts, mildews, and smuts. It may be single-celled or multi-cellular. Every cell has its definite nucleus. Fungi differ from plants because they lack chlorophyll and therefore, depend on other living organisms and decomposed material to survive. Hence, there are saprophytic fungi, that live on dead corpses and the remains of decomposed plants and parasitic fungi that rely on other living organisms for its nutrition.

4. Kingdom Plantae: this includes multi cellular organisms, each cell has its defined nucleus. These cells are organized into tissues and organs which include pigmentation that allows them to produce their own food through photosynthesis. The cell walls of plants are characteristically not living and the plants are normally rooted in soil.

5. Kingdom Animalia: this includes multi-cellular living organisms with nucleated cells and a living outer cell membrane. They are organisms that are able to move and rely on other organisms (plants and animals) to obtain their food.

This type of classification is to aid biologists in being familiar with these extensive amounts of living organisms. Viruses do not belong to the above 5 kingdoms of life. They are much smaller and much less complex than cells. They are macromolecular units composed of DNA or RNA surrounded by an outer protein shell. Similarly, prions and other non-cellular entities do not fit into any of the five kingdoms. The five-kingdom system of classification for living organisms, is further complicated by the discovery of archaebacteria., now recognized by most authorities as a 6th kingdom.

A prominent contemporary scientist describes it as: “Even though the method of classifying living organisms into 5 kingdoms is preferred in this book, it is like any other system created by the human mind. Therefore, it is an attempt to place arbitrary limits to nature which is too varied to be placed into such specific and narrow classifications and is therefore a very difficult, if not an impossible task.” (Biology: Richard A Goldzbi, 1980, page 394)

Current classification of living organisms (Taxonomy)

In an attempt to simplify the picture, which in fact made it more complicated, was further classification of each (kingdom) into (Phyla), every Phylum into (Classes), every Class into (Orders), every Order into (families), into (Genera), into (Species), into (Varieties) into (Strains) which consist of individuals.

Things got more complicated with the addition of sub-categories to multiply each classification up to three times of what it originally was. There came to be sub- and super- before each of the above mentioned categories. For example, there is now a super-kingdom, a kingdom and a sub-kingdom.

This reflects the desperate attempts of evolutionists in a trial to deny the absolute truth about creation and to deny the Creator (SWT) Himself. They are attempting to prove that everything comes from nature. However, new successive scientific advances, especially in the field of genetics and inheritance, are increasing the proof that the true system of classification of living organisms is the species, which Allah (SWT) has distinguished into billions of individuals distributed throughout the world and has brought together as populations living in specific places and environments. Each species has originated from one origin which Allah (SWT) has created and knows of.

The classification of living things according to species is therefore the only accurate method of classification established by modern science. As for the remaining higher categories of classification allocated by different biologists, they are not accurate because they depend on a lot of assumptions, which rely on personal points of view. A biologist classifying these categories would be prone to information bias through choosing which characteristics to consider and which to ignore in order to simplify the process of classifying this extensive number of creatures.


The classification of living things according to species is therefore the only accurate method of classification

Therefore, every species of living organisms on earth comprises groups or populations which are brought together by shared characteristics. These characteristics include external, phenotypic, genetic and internal anatomic similarities. They would also have similar physiologic and biochemical behavior, basic genetic characteristics, proximate environmental conditions even if separated by terrestrial distances, as well as the ability to interbreed to produce fertile offspring. These characteristics bring together all the individuals of any one population as well as bringing together individuals of different populations of the same species. This is the case even if populations of the same species exhibit differences as a result of variations in the surrounding environmental conditions, or due to genetic isolation, because they all have a common genetic code.

Therefore, individuals from two different species can never interbreed and produce a fertile offspring. Each species cannot possibly breed with another different species. There are only minor differences within a population of any one species based on the genes inherited by the individuals which was originally placed by Allah (SWT) in the origin of this species. These individual differences may become more evident among individuals of two separate populations as a result of genetic isolation as well as differences in environmental and climatic conditions.

This remark alone is enough to disprove the idea of the hierarchical classification of the living organisms which is based on assumptions of similarities within the individuals of any specific kingdom, whether it starts from the species or the strains up to the kingdom and between all the other kingdoms according to the evolutionary theory. That theory has also been disproved by modern advancements in science including the Genome Project which has unraveled the genetic code of humans as well as some other living organisms despite the attempts made by scientists such as Charles Darwin.

Carlous Linnaeous was a Swedish botanist, who published a book called ‘Systema Naturae’ in 1735, a 100 years before Charles Darwin’s publication of the book ‘On the origin of Species’. Linnaeus sought a natural method of arrangement, he stopped short of accepting the evolution of one species into another. Linnaeus’ book called for the necessity of a classification system of all living things based on Binomial Nomenclature. This naming system is based on the assumption that all living organisms originate and descend from a common origin. However, The ayah that we are looking at in Surat Al-An’am rejects this as Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, “There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle):38). This Ayah specifically says what can be translated as that every species of the living organisms, with its populations and individuals, is a special entity separated and isolated from other individuals, populations and species. Any similarities are within the individuals of the same species and do not in any way go beyond to any other species.

This is a reality which modern advancements in genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry have begun to clearly show. This fact was mentioned 1400 years ago in the Holy Qur’an which only re-affirms the fact that the Qur’an could only be the word of Allah (SWT) which He revealed upon His Prophet and Messenger (SAWS). No man could have ever produced it. It also proves that Allah (SWT) has protected every letter and word of it as He promised. He (SWT) kept it just as it was revealed in its original Arabic language for more than 14 centuries and will continue to do so until this earth and all that is on it returns back to Him (SWT). We thank Allah (SWT) for blessing us with the Qur’an and Islam.


Ants show a type of co-operation and other properties in their community resembles ones exist in human community

"All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, Who has guided us to this, and never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allâh had guided us!" (Surat Al-A'râf (The Heights):43)

Peace and blessings be upon the seal of the Prophets and the Messenger of Allah, who received the Holy Qur’an from his Lord (SWT), and passed it onto us with complete honesty, through his perfect character and morals, and it is all truth. Peace and blessings be on his beloved companions, family, pure wives and on all those who followed his guidance and acted upon it until the Day of Judgment.

By: Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar

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