Earth
Typography

The Glorious Qur’an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by The Creator (all glory be to Him) to man in areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings. Besides this guidance, the Glorious Qur’an refers to the cosmos (the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena) in numerous verses, that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying for the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of The Creator Who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of this annihilation and of its recreation. Consequently, the Qur’anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information per se, as scientific knowledge has been left for man to gain (through observation and conclusion or experimentation, observation and conclusion) over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge. Yet, the illustrious Qur’an, being the word of The Creator, and hence, the absolute truth, Qur’anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speaks of the earth, which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Glorious Qur’an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky layer or the soil section that covers its rocky surface. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:

1- One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated

"Say: "Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation, and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is Able to do all things."

(Surat Al-'Ankabut (The Spider): 20).

2- A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth

" And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);

"And the earth We have spread out, and have placed therein firm mountains, and caused to grow therein all kinds of things in due proportion."

(Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 19);

"{Musa (Moses)} said: "Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!"

(Surat Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets):28);

 

"He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running (on a fixed course) for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."

(Surat (Az-Zumar (The Groups): 5) ;

"And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants)."

(Surat Qaf: 7);

"(He is) the Lord of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter)."

(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):17);

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."

(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce):12);

"Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts?"

(Surat Al-Mulk (Dominion):3);

"So I swear by the Lord of all the (three hundred and sixty (360)) points of sunrise and sunset in the east and the west that surely We are Able, To replace them by (others) better than them; and We are not to be outrun."

(Surat Al-Ma'arij (The Ways of Ascent):40-41);

Its motions "And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating."

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):33);

"It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit."

(Surat Ya-Sin: 40);

"And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allah, Who perfected all things, verily! He is Well-Acquainted with what you do."

(Surat An-Naml (The Ants): 88);

"And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);

"And by the sun and its brightness; By the moon as it follows it (the sun); By the day as it shows up (the sun's) brightness; By the night as it conceals it (the sun);"

(Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun):1-4);

"By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness;"

(Surat Al-Lail (The Night): 1-2);

"He it is Who has appointed for you the night that you may rest therein, and the day to make things visible (to you). Verily, in this are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for a people who listen (i.e. those who think deeply)."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah):67);

"And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness), And have made the day for livelihood."

(Surat An-Naba' (The Great News): 10-11);

"If you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "Allah." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)?"

(Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider):61);

"See you not (O Muhammad (pbuh)) that Allah merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added in the hours of the day), and merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day are added in the hours of night), and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do."

(Surat Luqman: 29);

"He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day is added to the hours of night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon: each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the thin membrane over the date-stone)."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):13);

 

"He merges night into day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added into the hours of the day), and merges day into night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day is added into the hours of the night), and He has full knowledge of whatsoever is in the breasts."

(Surat Al-Hadid (Iron): 6);

"And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness."

(Surat Ya-Sin: 37);

"Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding."

(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow):164);

"Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding."

(Surat Al-'Imran (The Family of Imran):190);

"Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day and in all that Allah has created in the heavens and the earth are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for those people who keep their duty to Allah, and fear Him much."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah): 6);

"And it is He Who gives life and causes death, and His is the alternation of night and day. Will you not then understand?"

(Surat Al-Mu'minun (The Believers):80);

"And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision (rain) that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the turning about of the winds (i.e. sometimes towards the east or north, and sometimes towards the south or west sometimes bringing glad tidings of rain etc., and sometimes bringing the torment), are signs for a people who understand."

(Surat Al-Jathiyah (The Kneeling):5);

 

And its origin "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):30);

 

Where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) a single entity (the initial singularity~ primordial body) before they split apart (or the so-called Big Bang). Such group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars

"So I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. "

(Surat Al-Waqi'ah (The Event):75-76);

The expanding nature of the universe

"With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof." (Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatter):47) ~ The smoky nature of the early sky (universe)"Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly. Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."

(Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail):11-12),

The existence of the interstellar matter

"Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary). Say (O Muhammad (pbuh)): "Who then has the least power against Allah, if He were to destroy the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), his mother, and all those who are on the earth together?" And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. And (both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are the children of Allah and His loved ones." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins?" Nay, you are but human beings of those He has created, He forgives whom He wills and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them; and to Him is the return (of all)."

(Surat Al-Maidah (The Table spread with Food): 17-18);

"If you ask them (about this), they declare: "We were only talking idly and joking." Say: "Was it at Allah (ÚÒ æ Ìá), and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (pbuh) that you were mocking?"

(Surat At-Taubah (The Repentance): 65);

"And let not their speech grieve you (O Muhammad (pbuh)), for all power and honour belong to Allah. He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah):65);

"Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). The Most Beneficent (Allah)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad SAW), (concerning His Qualities, His rising over His Throne, His creations, etc.), as He is Al-Khabeer (The All-Knower of everything i.e. Allah)."

(Surat Al-Furqan (The Criterion):59);

"{Musa (Moses)} said: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty."

(Surat Ash-Su'ara (The Poets):24);

"Do they not think deeply (in their ownselves) about themselves (how Allah created them from nothing, and similarly He will resurrect them)? Allah has created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, except with truth and for an appointed term. And indeed many of mankind deny the Meeting with their Lord."

(Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans) ;

"Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Wali (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)?"

(Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration):4);

"So he looked down and saw him in the midst of the Fire."

(Surat As-Saffat (Those Ranged in Ranks): 55);

"Or is it that the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them is theirs? If so, let them ascend up with means (to the heavens)!"

(Surat Sad: 10);

"The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."

(Surat Sad: 66);

"And Blessed is He to Whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned."

(Surat Az-Zukhrf (The Gold Adornments):85);

"We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for an appointed term. But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned."

(Surat Al-Ahqaf (The Curved Sand-hills):3);

"And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us."

(Surat Qaf: 38);

And the concentric nature of both heavens and the earth (the universe) {"See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another,"

(Surat Nuh (Noah):15);

 

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."

(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce): 12) ;}.

3- One verse that emphasizes the extraterrestrial origin of iron in our planet

"Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help Him (His religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty."

(Surat Al-Hadid (Iron):25).

4- One verse that describes the deeply fractured (faulted) nature of the earth and reflects on the relationship between such fractures (faults) and the recurrence of earthquakes

"And the earth which splits (with the growth of trees and plants),"

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):12).

 

5- A group of verses that describe some of the most recently discovered oceanographic phenomena such as:

(a)The superheated nature of the bottoms of certain seas and oceans (implying intensive submarine volcanic activity associated with sea-floor spreading)

"Verily, the Torment of your Lord will surely come to pass," (Surat At-Tur (The Mount): 6).

(b)The complete separation of different bodies of water (fresh and saline, as well as saline waters of different compositions) that do not mix completely or immediately due to the constant presence of impassable barriers in between

"And it is He Who has let free the two seas (kinds of water), one palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter, and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them."

(Surat Al-Furqan (The Criterion):53);

"He has let loosed the two seas (the salt water and the sweet) meeting together."

(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):19).

6- One verse that describes mountains as pegs or pickets

"And the mountains as pegs?" (Surat An-Naba' (The Great News):7),

emphasizing their relatively small, above-ground elevations, compared to their much more deeply hurried parts (roots), and their role in the fixation of continental masses as well as of the whole planet. This fact is emphasized in ten other verses that also ascribe more functions to mountains such as their part in the process of precipitation of rain and in the formation of natural heads for running streams

" And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big). He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar'Ra'd (The Thunder):3);

"And the earth We have spread out, and have placed therein firm mountains, and caused to grow therein all kinds of things in due proportion." (Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 19);

"And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves."

(Surat An-Nahl (The Bees):15);

"And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided."

(Surat Al-Anbiya (The Prophets):31);

"Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water).Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not."

(Surat An-Naml (The Ants):61);

"And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants)."

(Surat Qaf: 7);

"And the mountains He has fixed firmly;"

(Surat An-Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out):32).

In the twelfth verse of this group, the Qur’an asks the human beings to contemplate on a number of observations in the universe including how mountains are made to stand up on the surface of the earth" And at the mountains, how they are rooted (and fixed firm)?"

(Surat Al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming):19).

Such speculation has led to the formulation of the concept of isostacy which is currently used to explain such phenomenon. In another verse of this group

"See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colors and (others) very black."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):27);

The Qur’an describes mountains as being composed of white and red tracts of various shades of colors and of others that are black and intense in hue. This is probably referring to both acidic mountains (which are dominantly granitic in composition, with overwhelming white and red colors of various shades) and basic to ultra basic mountains (which are dominantly basaltic I gabbroic in composition with black colored ferromagnesian minerals). Each of these major primary rock groups have its specific chemical and mineralogical composition as well as its specific temperature of separation from its mother magma. Their dominant colors are also reflected in their secondary and or tertiary products of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and hence, the Importance of these three principal colors (white, red and black) in the classification of igneous rocks and of their derivatives.

7- A group of verses that reflect on the earth’s hydrosphere and atmosphere, which are both clearly stated to have been out gassed from within the earths a fact that is only very recently discovered

"And after that He spread the earth; And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture;"

(Surat An-Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out):30-31).

Other verses in this group comment on the protective nature of the atmosphere for life on earth" And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs (i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds, etc.)."

(Surat Al-Anbiya (The Prophets):32);

"By the sky (having rain clouds) which gives rain, again and again."

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):11),

The absolute darkness of the outer space

"And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to keep on ascending thereto (all the day long). They would surely say (in the evening): "Our eyes have been (as if) dazzled (we have not seen any angel or heaven). Nay, we are a people bewitched." (Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract), the reduction of atmospheric pressure with elevation" And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not." (Al-An'am (The Cattle):125) and the glowing nature of the early nights of our planet before the formation of its protective atmospheric layers

"And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat (signs etc.). Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of the day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything (in detail) with full explanation."

(Surat Al-Isra' (The Journey by Night):12).

8- A group of verses that emphasize the thinness of the earth’s crust

"And Allah has made for you the earth a wide expanse."

(Surat Nuh (Noah):19),

The constant leveling and degradation of the earth’s surface and the gradual change in the geographic dimensions of continental masses, and even the contraction of the whole planet and the deformation of its surface" See they not that We gradually reduce the land (of the disbelievers, by giving it to the believers, in war victories) from its outlying borders. And Allah judges, there is none to put back His Judgment and He is Swift at reckoning."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder):41);

"Nay, We gave the luxuries of this life to these men and their fathers until the period grew long for them. See they not that We gradually reduce the land (in their control) from its outlying borders? Is it then they who will overcome."

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):44);

"Have We not made the earth as a bed,"

(Surat An-Naba' (The Great News):6).

9- Verses emphasizing the fact that Groundwater is generated from rain, thus reflecting on the hydro geological cycle

"And We sent down from the sky water (rain) in (due) measure, and We gave it lodging in the earth, and verily, We are Able to take it away."

(Surat Al-Mu'minun (The Belivers):18),

And others relating life on earth to water

"Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):30);

"Allah has created every moving (living) creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, and some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things." (Surat An-Nur (The Light):45) or reflecting on the possibility of classifying life forms" Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you? And We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them. Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and we created after them other generations."

(Surat Al-An'am (The Cattle):38).

10- Verses emphasizing the fact that the process of creation took place in successive stages over tremendously long spans of time

"Say (O Muhammad (pbuh)):" Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days? And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists). He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation). Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly." Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affairs. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."

(Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail):9-12);

 

"And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allah fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon."

(Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage):47);

 

"He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then it (affair) will go up to Him, in one Day, the space whereof is a thousand years of your reckoning (i.e. reckoning of our present world's time)."

(Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration):5), etc.)

 

11- Verses that describe the end of our planet and of the whole universe by reversing the process of its creation (the so-called Big Crunch)

"And (remember) the Day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books. As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it." (Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):104),after which the eternal universe will be created" On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they (all creatures) will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible."

(Surat Ibrahim (Abraham):48).

Such knowledge was not available before the turn of the present century, and most of it has just started to be understood through the painstaking analysis of massive amounts of scientific observations. The Qur’anic precedence with such precise and comprehensive knowledge points to only one of the multifarious miraculous nature of this Glorious Book, being the last Divine Message, and the only one that has been kept intact with exactly the same language of revelation word to word and letter to letter for more than 14 centuries. From the above mentioned discussion it is obvious that Qur’anic verses with geological notions exceed 110 in number and need voluminous texts to explain. Consequently, the present paper concentrates on verses which represent established facts and concepts in the area of Earth Sciences and are only given as examples of the miraculous nature of the Glorious Qur’an as follows:

 

A-The Fractured earth. And by the Earth which has its own fault " And the earth which splits (with the growth of trees and plants),"

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):12)

The Glorious Qur’an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by The Creator (all glory be to Him) to man in areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings. Besides this guidance, the Glorious Qur’an refers to the cosmos (the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena) in numerous verses, that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying for the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of The Creator Who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of this annihilation and of its recreation. Consequently, the Qur’anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information per se, as scientific knowledge has been left for man to gain (through observation and conclusion or experimentation, observation and conclusion) over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge. Yet, the illustrious Qur’an, being the word of The Creator, and hence, the absolute truth, Qur’anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speaks of the earth, which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Glorious Qur’an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky layer or the soil section that covers its rocky surface. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:

1- One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated

"Say: "Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation, and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is Able to do all things."

(Surat Al-'Ankabut (The Spider): 20).

2- A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth

" And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);

"And the earth We have spread out, and have placed therein firm mountains, and caused to grow therein all kinds of things in due proportion."

(Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 19);

"{Musa (Moses)} said: "Lord of the east and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!"

(Surat Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets):28);

 

"He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running (on a fixed course) for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."

(Surat (Az-Zumar (The Groups): 5) ;

"And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants)."

(Surat Qaf: 7);

"(He is) the Lord of the two easts (places of sunrise during early summer and early winter) and the Lord of the two wests (places of sunset during early summer and early winter)."

(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):17);

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."

(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce):12);

"Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts?"

(Surat Al-Mulk (Dominion):3);

"So I swear by the Lord of all the (three hundred and sixty (360)) points of sunrise and sunset in the east and the west that surely We are Able, To replace them by (others) better than them; and We are not to be outrun."

(Surat Al-Ma'arij (The Ways of Ascent):40-41);

Its motions "And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating."

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):33);

"It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit."

(Surat Ya-Sin: 40);

"And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allah, Who perfected all things, verily! He is Well-Acquainted with what you do."

(Surat An-Naml (The Ants): 88);

"And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big).He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder): 3);

"And by the sun and its brightness; By the moon as it follows it (the sun); By the day as it shows up (the sun's) brightness; By the night as it conceals it (the sun);"

(Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun):1-4);

"By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness;"

(Surat Al-Lail (The Night): 1-2);

"He it is Who has appointed for you the night that you may rest therein, and the day to make things visible (to you). Verily, in this are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for a people who listen (i.e. those who think deeply)."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah):67);

"And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness), And have made the day for livelihood."

(Surat An-Naba' (The Great News): 10-11);

"If you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "Allah." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)?"

(Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider):61);

"See you not (O Muhammad (pbuh)) that Allah merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added in the hours of the day), and merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day are added in the hours of night), and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do."

(Surat Luqman: 29);

"He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of day is added to the hours of night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon: each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the thin membrane over the date-stone)."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):13);

 

"He merges night into day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added into the hours of the day), and merges day into night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day is added into the hours of the night), and He has full knowledge of whatsoever is in the breasts."

(Surat Al-Hadid (Iron): 6);

"And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness."

(Surat Ya-Sin: 37);

"Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding."

(Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow):164);

"Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding."

(Surat Al-'Imran (The Family of Imran):190);

"Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day and in all that Allah has created in the heavens and the earth are Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for those people who keep their duty to Allah, and fear Him much."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah): 6);

"And it is He Who gives life and causes death, and His is the alternation of night and day. Will you not then understand?"

(Surat Al-Mu'minun (The Believers):80);

"And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision (rain) that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the turning about of the winds (i.e. sometimes towards the east or north, and sometimes towards the south or west sometimes bringing glad tidings of rain etc., and sometimes bringing the torment), are signs for a people who understand."

(Surat Al-Jathiyah (The Kneeling):5);

 

And its origin "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):30);

 

Where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) a single entity (the initial singularity~ primordial body) before they split apart (or the so-called Big Bang). Such group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars

"So I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. "

(Surat Al-Waqi'ah (The Event):75-76);

The expanding nature of the universe

"With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof." (Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatter):47) ~ The smoky nature of the early sky (universe)"Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly. Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."

(Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail):11-12),

The existence of the interstellar matter

"Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary). Say (O Muhammad (pbuh)): "Who then has the least power against Allah, if He were to destroy the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), his mother, and all those who are on the earth together?" And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. And (both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are the children of Allah and His loved ones." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins?" Nay, you are but human beings of those He has created, He forgives whom He wills and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them; and to Him is the return (of all)."

(Surat Al-Maidah (The Table spread with Food): 17-18);

"If you ask them (about this), they declare: "We were only talking idly and joking." Say: "Was it at Allah (ÚÒ æ Ìá), and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (pbuh) that you were mocking?"

(Surat At-Taubah (The Repentance): 65);

"And let not their speech grieve you (O Muhammad (pbuh)), for all power and honour belong to Allah. He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower."

(Surat Yunus (Jonah):65);

"Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). The Most Beneficent (Allah)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad SAW), (concerning His Qualities, His rising over His Throne, His creations, etc.), as He is Al-Khabeer (The All-Knower of everything i.e. Allah)."

(Surat Al-Furqan (The Criterion):59);

"{Musa (Moses)} said: "The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty."

(Surat Ash-Su'ara (The Poets):24);

"Do they not think deeply (in their ownselves) about themselves (how Allah created them from nothing, and similarly He will resurrect them)? Allah has created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, except with truth and for an appointed term. And indeed many of mankind deny the Meeting with their Lord."

(Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans) ;

"Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Wali (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)?"

(Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration):4);

"So he looked down and saw him in the midst of the Fire."

(Surat As-Saffat (Those Ranged in Ranks): 55);

"Or is it that the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them is theirs? If so, let them ascend up with means (to the heavens)!"

(Surat Sad: 10);

"The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving."

(Surat Sad: 66);

"And Blessed is He to Whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned."

(Surat Az-Zukhrf (The Gold Adornments):85);

"We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for an appointed term. But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned."

(Surat Al-Ahqaf (The Curved Sand-hills):3);

"And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us."

(Surat Qaf: 38);

And the concentric nature of both heavens and the earth (the universe) {"See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another,"

(Surat Nuh (Noah):15);

 

"It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge."

(Surat At-Talaq (The Divorce): 12) ;}.

3- One verse that emphasizes the extraterrestrial origin of iron in our planet

"Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help Him (His religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty."

(Surat Al-Hadid (Iron):25).

4- One verse that describes the deeply fractured (faulted) nature of the earth and reflects on the relationship between such fractures (faults) and the recurrence of earthquakes

"And the earth which splits (with the growth of trees and plants),"

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):12).

 

5- A group of verses that describe some of the most recently discovered oceanographic phenomena such as:

(a)The superheated nature of the bottoms of certain seas and oceans (implying intensive submarine volcanic activity associated with sea-floor spreading)

"Verily, the Torment of your Lord will surely come to pass," (Surat At-Tur (The Mount): 6).

(b)The complete separation of different bodies of water (fresh and saline, as well as saline waters of different compositions) that do not mix completely or immediately due to the constant presence of impassable barriers in between

"And it is He Who has let free the two seas (kinds of water), one palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter, and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them."

(Surat Al-Furqan (The Criterion):53);

"He has let loosed the two seas (the salt water and the sweet) meeting together."

(Surat Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious):19).

6- One verse that describes mountains as pegs or pickets

"And the mountains as pegs?" (Surat An-Naba' (The Great News):7),

emphasizing their relatively small, above-ground elevations, compared to their much more deeply hurried parts (roots), and their role in the fixation of continental masses as well as of the whole planet. This fact is emphasized in ten other verses that also ascribe more functions to mountains such as their part in the process of precipitation of rain and in the formation of natural heads for running streams

" And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruits He made Zawjain Ithnain (two in pairs-may mean two kinds or it may mean: of two varieties, e.g. black and white, sweet and sour, small and big). He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) for people who reflect."

(Surat Ar'Ra'd (The Thunder):3);

"And the earth We have spread out, and have placed therein firm mountains, and caused to grow therein all kinds of things in due proportion." (Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 19);

"And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves."

(Surat An-Nahl (The Bees):15);

"And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided."

(Surat Al-Anbiya (The Prophets):31);

"Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water).Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not."

(Surat An-Naml (The Ants):61);

"And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely growth (plants)."

(Surat Qaf: 7);

"And the mountains He has fixed firmly;"

(Surat An-Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out):32).

In the twelfth verse of this group, the Qur’an asks the human beings to contemplate on a number of observations in the universe including how mountains are made to stand up on the surface of the earth" And at the mountains, how they are rooted (and fixed firm)?"

(Surat Al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming):19).

Such speculation has led to the formulation of the concept of isostacy which is currently used to explain such phenomenon. In another verse of this group

"See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colors and (others) very black."

(Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation, or The Angels):27);

The Qur’an describes mountains as being composed of white and red tracts of various shades of colors and of others that are black and intense in hue. This is probably referring to both acidic mountains (which are dominantly granitic in composition, with overwhelming white and red colors of various shades) and basic to ultra basic mountains (which are dominantly basaltic I gabbroic in composition with black colored ferromagnesian minerals). Each of these major primary rock groups have its specific chemical and mineralogical composition as well as its specific temperature of separation from its mother magma. Their dominant colors are also reflected in their secondary and or tertiary products of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and hence, the Importance of these three principal colors (white, red and black) in the classification of igneous rocks and of their derivatives.

7- A group of verses that reflect on the earth’s hydrosphere and atmosphere, which are both clearly stated to have been out gassed from within the earths a fact that is only very recently discovered

"And after that He spread the earth; And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture;"

(Surat An-Nazi'at (Those Who Pull Out):30-31).

Other verses in this group comment on the protective nature of the atmosphere for life on earth" And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs (i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds, etc.)."

(Surat Al-Anbiya (The Prophets):32);

"By the sky (having rain clouds) which gives rain, again and again."

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):11),

The absolute darkness of the outer space

"And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to keep on ascending thereto (all the day long). They would surely say (in the evening): "Our eyes have been (as if) dazzled (we have not seen any angel or heaven). Nay, we are a people bewitched." (Surat Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract), the reduction of atmospheric pressure with elevation" And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not." (Al-An'am (The Cattle):125) and the glowing nature of the early nights of our planet before the formation of its protective atmospheric layers

"And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat (signs etc.). Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of the day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything (in detail) with full explanation."

(Surat Al-Isra' (The Journey by Night):12).

8- A group of verses that emphasize the thinness of the earth’s crust

"And Allah has made for you the earth a wide expanse."

(Surat Nuh (Noah):19),

The constant leveling and degradation of the earth’s surface and the gradual change in the geographic dimensions of continental masses, and even the contraction of the whole planet and the deformation of its surface" See they not that We gradually reduce the land (of the disbelievers, by giving it to the believers, in war victories) from its outlying borders. And Allah judges, there is none to put back His Judgment and He is Swift at reckoning."

(Surat Ar-Ra'd (The Thunder):41);

"Nay, We gave the luxuries of this life to these men and their fathers until the period grew long for them. See they not that We gradually reduce the land (in their control) from its outlying borders? Is it then they who will overcome."

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):44);

"Have We not made the earth as a bed,"

(Surat An-Naba' (The Great News):6).

9- Verses emphasizing the fact that Groundwater is generated from rain, thus reflecting on the hydro geological cycle

"And We sent down from the sky water (rain) in (due) measure, and We gave it lodging in the earth, and verily, We are Able to take it away."

(Surat Al-Mu'minun (The Belivers):18),

And others relating life on earth to water

"Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"

(Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):30);

"Allah has created every moving (living) creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, and some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things." (Surat An-Nur (The Light):45) or reflecting on the possibility of classifying life forms" Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom We had established on the earth such as We have not established you? And We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them. Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and we created after them other generations."

(Surat Al-An'am (The Cattle):38).

10- Verses emphasizing the fact that the process of creation took place in successive stages over tremendously long spans of time

"Say (O Muhammad (pbuh)):" Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days? And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists). He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation). Then He rose over (Istawa) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly." Then He completed and finished from their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affairs. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."

(Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail):9-12);

 

"And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allah fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon."

(Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage):47);

 

"He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then it (affair) will go up to Him, in one Day, the space whereof is a thousand years of your reckoning (i.e. reckoning of our present world's time)."

(Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration):5), etc.)

 

11- Verses that describe the end of our planet and of the whole universe by reversing the process of its creation (the so-called Big Crunch)

"And (remember) the Day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books. As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it." (Surat Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets):104),after which the eternal universe will be created" On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they (all creatures) will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible."

(Surat Ibrahim (Abraham):48).

Such knowledge was not available before the turn of the present century, and most of it has just started to be understood through the painstaking analysis of massive amounts of scientific observations. The Qur’anic precedence with such precise and comprehensive knowledge points to only one of the multifarious miraculous nature of this Glorious Book, being the last Divine Message, and the only one that has been kept intact with exactly the same language of revelation word to word and letter to letter for more than 14 centuries. From the above mentioned discussion it is obvious that Qur’anic verses with geological notions exceed 110 in number and need voluminous texts to explain. Consequently, the present paper concentrates on verses which represent established facts and concepts in the area of Earth Sciences and are only given as examples of the miraculous nature of the Glorious Qur’an as follows:

 

A-The Fractured earth. And by the Earth which has its own fault " And the earth which splits (with the growth of trees and plants),"

(Surat At-Tariq (The Night-Comer):12)

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