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God has created this world with astonishing balance in all of its components. This delicate balance prepared the universe to fit the life of the mankind, and this reality implies that man came to this earth to do a mission which is worshipping the creator of this magnificent universe. So let's review how each detail in this universe could affect our existence if it was not at the delicate balance, it exists now.

Allah says in the holy Quran

"Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of Night and Day,― there are indeed Signs for men of understanding * Men who celebrate the praises of Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire" (Quran 3:190-191)

THE BASIC FORCES

The basic forces of matter and the universe are astounding. They could not have come into existence by accident. There are several basic forces in nature which would destroy the universe—or not let it form—were it not for the delicate balance within each of them.

 

Gravity

Gravity is the weakest force in the universe, yet it is in perfect balance. If gravity were any stronger, the smaller stars could not form; and, if it were any smaller, the bigger stars could not form and no heavy elements could exist. Only "red dwarf" stars would exist, and these would radiate too feebly to support life on a planet.

All masses are found to attract one another with a force that varies inversely as the square of the separation distance between the masses. That, in brief, is the law of gravity. But where did that "2" [square] come from? Why is the equation exactly "separation distance squared"? Why is it not 1.87, 1.92, 2.001, or 3.378; why is it exactly 2? Every test reveals the force of gravity to be keyed precisely to that 2. Any value other than 2 would lead to an eventual decay of orbits,—and the entire universe would destroy itself!

Gravity is the weakest force in the universe, yet it is in perfect balance

 

(Another example would be the inverse-square law, which is often mentioned in connection with the redshift and the visibility of quasars. According to this law, light diminishes exactly according to the square of its distance from the observer, not 1.8, .97, or some other fraction, but exactly 2.)

Nuclear force

It is the nuclear force that holds the atoms together. There is a critical level to the nuclear force also. If it were larger, there would be no hydrogen, but only helium and the heavy elements. If it were smaller, there would be only hydrogen, and no heavy elements. Without hydrogen and without heavy elements there could be no life. In addition, without hydrogen, there could be no stable stars. If the nuclear force were only one part in a hundred stronger or weaker than it now is, carbon could not exist—and carbon is the basic element in every living thing. A 2 percent increase in the nuclear force would eliminate protons.

Electromagnetic force

Another crucial factor is the electromagnetic force. If it were just a very small amount smaller or larger, no chemical bonds could form. A reduction in strength by a factor of only 1.6 would result in the rapid decay of protons into leptons. A three-fold increase in the charge of the electron would render it impossible for any elements to exist, other than hydrogen. A three-fold decrease would bring the destruction of all neutral atoms by even the lowest heat—that found in outer space.

If there is any change in the delicate value of electromagnetic force, any type of matter will not exist

 

It is of interest that, in spite of the delicate internal ratio balance within each of the four forces (gravitation, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong forces), those four forces have strengths which differ so greatly from one another that the strongest is ten thousand billion billion billion billion times more powerful than the weakest of them.

It should also be noted that evolutionists cannot claim that these delicate balances occurred as a result of "natural selection" or "mutations"! We are here dealing with the basic properties of matter. The proton-to-neutron mass ratio is what it has always been—what it was since the Beginning! It has not changed, it never will change. It began just right; there was no second chance! The same with all the other factors and balances to be found in elemental matter and physical principles governing it.

Proton to neutron ratio

A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms. It has a positive electric charge that is equal to the negative charge of the electron. A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no electric charge. The mass of the neutron must exceed that of the proton in order for the stable elements to exist. But the neutron can only exceed the mass of the proton by an extremely small amount—an amount which is exactly twice the mass of the electron. That critical point of balance is only one part in a thousand. If the ratio of the mass of the proton to neutron were to vary outside of that limit—chaos would result.

The proton's mass is exactly what it should be in order to provide stability for the entire universe. If it were any less or more, atoms would fly apart or crush together, and everything they are in—which is everything!—would be destroyed. If the mass of the proton were only slightly larger, the added weight would cause it to quickly become unstable and decay into a neutron, positron, and neutrino. Since hydrogen atoms have only one proton, its dissolution would destroy all hydrogen, and hydrogen is the dominant element in the universe. A master Designer planned that the proton's mass would be slightly smaller than that of the neutron. Without that delicate balance the universe would collapse.

Photon to baryon ratio

A photon is the basic quantum, or unit, of light or other electromagnetic radiant energy, when considered as a discrete particle. The baryon is any subatomic particle whose weight is equal to or greater than that of a proton. This photon-to-baryon ratio is crucial. If it were much higher than it is, stars and galaxies could not hold together through gravitational attraction.

THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE IN THE UNIVERSE

Many other relations, distances, and factors are crucial to life as we know it.

Scientists recognize that there is a strong quality running through nature all about us, that enables life to exist on our planet. This is called the "anthropic principle." It appears that water, atmosphere, chemicals—were all perfectly designed for living things to exist, and, in special sense, for mankind to exist.

This is quite obvious to any thinking individual who is willing, without prejudice, to consider the things of nature in our world and outside of it.

There are many other examples that could be cited in nature which require the most delicate of balancings in order for the stars, planets, life, and mankind to exist.

The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history

 

Before concluding this section, we will consider but one more: the distance that the moon is from the earth. If it were much closer, it would crash into our planet, if much farther away, it would move off into space.

If it were much closer, the tides that the moon causes on the earth would become dangerously larger. Ocean waves would sweep across low-lying sections of the continents. Resultant friction would heat the oceans, destroying the delicate thermal balance needed for life on earth.

A more distant moon would reduce tidal action, making the oceans more sluggish. Stagnant water would endanger marine life, yet it is that very marine life that produces the oxygen that we breath. (We receive more of our oxygen from ocean plants than from land plants.) Why is the moon so exactly positioned in the sky overhead? Who placed it there? It surely did not rush by like a speeding train, then decide to pause, and carefully enter that balanced orbit.


Reference: creation-evolution encyclopedia


The following table shows what would happen if the delicate balance in each individual detail of this vast universe is violated. This obligates us to thank our God who bestows upon us with this delicate balance so that we can live in this universe.

Allah says in Quran "Lo! We have created every thing by measure" (Quran 54:49)

From a paper “Limits for the Universe” by Hugh Ross, Ph.D

1

Gravitational coupling constant

If larger:

No stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans

If smaller:

No stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element production

2

Strong nuclear force coupling constant

If larger:

No hydrogen; nuclei essential for life are unstable

If smaller:

No elements other than hydrogen

3

Weak nuclear force coupling constant

If larger:

All hydrogen is converted to helium in the big bang, hence too much heavy elements

If smaller:

No helium produced from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements

4

Electromagnetic coupling constant

If larger:

No chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron are unstable to fission

If smaller:

No chemical bonding

5

Ratio of protons to electrons formation

If larger:

Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation

If smaller:

Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation

6

Ratio of electron to proton mass

If larger:

No chemical bonding

If smaller:

No chemical bonding

7

Expansion rate of the universe

If larger:

No galaxy formation

If smaller:

Universe collapses prior to star formation

8

Entropy level of universe

If larger:

No star condensation within the proto-galaxies

If smaller:

No proto-galaxy formation

9

Mass density of the universe

If larger:

Too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly

If smaller:

No helium from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements

10

Age of the universe

If older:

No solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the galaxy

If younger:

Solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed

11

Initial uniformity of radiation

If  smoother:

Stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed

If coarser:

Universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space

12

Average distance between stars

If larger:

Heavy element density too thin for rocky planet production

If smaller:

Planetary orbits become destabilized

13

Solar luminosity

If increases too soon:

Runaway green house effect

If increases too late:

Frozen oceans

14

Fine structure constant*

If larger:

No stars more than 0.7 solar masses

If smaller:

No stars less then 1.8 solar masses

15

Decay rate of the proton

If greater:

Life would be exterminated by the release of radiation

If smaller:

Insufficient matter in the universe for life

16

12C to 16O energy level ratio

If larger:

Insufficient oxygen

If smaller:

Insufficient carbon

17

Decay rate of 8Be

If slower:

Heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars

If faster:

No element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life chemistry possible

18

Mass difference between the neutron and the proton

If greater:

Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form

If smaller:

Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form

19

Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons

If greater:

Too much radiation for planets to form

If smaller:

Not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form

20

Galaxy type

If too elliptical:

Star formation ceases  before sufficient heavy element buildup for life chemistry

If too irregular:

Radiation exposure on occasion is too severe and/or heavy elements for life chemistry are not available

21

Parent star distance from center of galaxy

If farther:

Quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky planets

If closer:

Stellar density and radiation would be too great

22

Number of stars in the planetary system

If more than one:

Tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbits

If less than one:

Heat produced would be insufficient for life

23

Parent star birth date

If more recent:

Star would not yet have reached stable burning phase

If less recent:

Stellar system would not yet contain enough heavy elements

24

Parent star mass

If greater:

Luminosity would change too fast; star would burn too rapidly

If less:

Range of distances appropriate for life would be too narrow; tidal forces would disrupt the rotational period for a planet of the right distance; uv radiation would be inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygen

25

Parent star age

If older:

Luminosity of star would change too quickly

If younger:

Luminosity of star would change too quickly

26

Parent star color

If redder:

Photosynthetic response would be insufficient

If bluer:

Photosynthetic response would be insufficient

27

Supernovae eruptions

If too close:

Life on the planet would be exterminated

If too far:

Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets

If too infrequent:

Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets

If too frequent:

Life on the planet would be exterminated

28

White dwarf binaries

If too few:

Insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed

If too many:

Disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the planet would be exterminated

29

Surface gravity (escape velocity)

If stronger:

Atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane

If weaker:

Planet's atmosphere would lose too much water

30

Distance from parent star

If farther:

Planet would be too cool for a stable water cycle

If closer:

Planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle

31

Inclination of orbit

If too great:

Temperature differences on the planet would be too extreme

       

32

Orbital eccentricity

If too great:

Seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme

       

33

Axial tilt

If greater:

Surface temperature differences would be too great

If less:

Surface temperature differences would be too great

34

Rotation period

If longer:

Diurnal temperature differences would be too great

If shorter:

Atmospheric wind velocities would be too great

35

Gravitational interaction with a moon

If greater:

Tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe

If less:

Orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities

36

Magnetic field

If stronger:

Electromagnetic storms would be too severe

If weaker:

Inadequate protection from hard stellar radiation

37

Thickness of crust

If thicker:

Too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust

If thinner:

Volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great

38

Albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface)

If greater:

Runaway ice age would develop

If less:

Runaway green house effect would develop

39

Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere

If larger:

Advanced life functions would proceed too quickly

If smaller:

Advanced life functions would proceed too slowly

40

Carbon dioxide level in atmosphere

If greater:

Runaway greenhouse effect would develop

If less:

Plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis

41

Water vapor level in atmosphere

If greater:

Runaway greenhouse effect would develop

If less:

Rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the land

42

Ozone level in atmosphere

If greater:

Surface temperatures would be too low

If less

Surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uv radiation at the surface

43

Atmospheric electric discharge rate

If greater:

Too much fire destruction would occur

If less:

Too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere

44

Oxygen quantity in atmosphere

If greater:

Plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily

If less:

Advanced animals would have too little to breathe

45

Oceans to continents ratio

If greater:

Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

If smaller:

diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

46

Soil materializations

If too nutrient poor:

diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

If too nutrient rich:

Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

47

Seismic activity

If greater:

Too many life-forms would be destroyed

If less:

Nutrients on ocean floors (from river runoff) would not be recycled to the continents through tectonic uplift

From a paper “Limits for the Universe” by Hugh Ross, Ph.D

God has created this world with astonishing balance in all of its components. This delicate balance prepared the universe to fit the life of the mankind, and this reality implies that man came to this earth to do a mission which is worshipping the creator of this magnificent universe. So let's review how each detail in this universe could affect our existence if it was not at the delicate balance, it exists now.

Allah says in the holy Quran

"Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of Night and Day,― there are indeed Signs for men of understanding * Men who celebrate the praises of Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire" (Quran 3:190-191)

THE BASIC FORCES

The basic forces of matter and the universe are astounding. They could not have come into existence by accident. There are several basic forces in nature which would destroy the universe—or not let it form—were it not for the delicate balance within each of them.

 

Gravity

Gravity is the weakest force in the universe, yet it is in perfect balance. If gravity were any stronger, the smaller stars could not form; and, if it were any smaller, the bigger stars could not form and no heavy elements could exist. Only "red dwarf" stars would exist, and these would radiate too feebly to support life on a planet.

All masses are found to attract one another with a force that varies inversely as the square of the separation distance between the masses. That, in brief, is the law of gravity. But where did that "2" [square] come from? Why is the equation exactly "separation distance squared"? Why is it not 1.87, 1.92, 2.001, or 3.378; why is it exactly 2? Every test reveals the force of gravity to be keyed precisely to that 2. Any value other than 2 would lead to an eventual decay of orbits,—and the entire universe would destroy itself!

Gravity is the weakest force in the universe, yet it is in perfect balance

 

(Another example would be the inverse-square law, which is often mentioned in connection with the redshift and the visibility of quasars. According to this law, light diminishes exactly according to the square of its distance from the observer, not 1.8, .97, or some other fraction, but exactly 2.)

Nuclear force

It is the nuclear force that holds the atoms together. There is a critical level to the nuclear force also. If it were larger, there would be no hydrogen, but only helium and the heavy elements. If it were smaller, there would be only hydrogen, and no heavy elements. Without hydrogen and without heavy elements there could be no life. In addition, without hydrogen, there could be no stable stars. If the nuclear force were only one part in a hundred stronger or weaker than it now is, carbon could not exist—and carbon is the basic element in every living thing. A 2 percent increase in the nuclear force would eliminate protons.

Electromagnetic force

Another crucial factor is the electromagnetic force. If it were just a very small amount smaller or larger, no chemical bonds could form. A reduction in strength by a factor of only 1.6 would result in the rapid decay of protons into leptons. A three-fold increase in the charge of the electron would render it impossible for any elements to exist, other than hydrogen. A three-fold decrease would bring the destruction of all neutral atoms by even the lowest heat—that found in outer space.

If there is any change in the delicate value of electromagnetic force, any type of matter will not exist

 

It is of interest that, in spite of the delicate internal ratio balance within each of the four forces (gravitation, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong forces), those four forces have strengths which differ so greatly from one another that the strongest is ten thousand billion billion billion billion times more powerful than the weakest of them.

It should also be noted that evolutionists cannot claim that these delicate balances occurred as a result of "natural selection" or "mutations"! We are here dealing with the basic properties of matter. The proton-to-neutron mass ratio is what it has always been—what it was since the Beginning! It has not changed, it never will change. It began just right; there was no second chance! The same with all the other factors and balances to be found in elemental matter and physical principles governing it.

Proton to neutron ratio

A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms. It has a positive electric charge that is equal to the negative charge of the electron. A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no electric charge. The mass of the neutron must exceed that of the proton in order for the stable elements to exist. But the neutron can only exceed the mass of the proton by an extremely small amount—an amount which is exactly twice the mass of the electron. That critical point of balance is only one part in a thousand. If the ratio of the mass of the proton to neutron were to vary outside of that limit—chaos would result.

The proton's mass is exactly what it should be in order to provide stability for the entire universe. If it were any less or more, atoms would fly apart or crush together, and everything they are in—which is everything!—would be destroyed. If the mass of the proton were only slightly larger, the added weight would cause it to quickly become unstable and decay into a neutron, positron, and neutrino. Since hydrogen atoms have only one proton, its dissolution would destroy all hydrogen, and hydrogen is the dominant element in the universe. A master Designer planned that the proton's mass would be slightly smaller than that of the neutron. Without that delicate balance the universe would collapse.

Photon to baryon ratio

A photon is the basic quantum, or unit, of light or other electromagnetic radiant energy, when considered as a discrete particle. The baryon is any subatomic particle whose weight is equal to or greater than that of a proton. This photon-to-baryon ratio is crucial. If it were much higher than it is, stars and galaxies could not hold together through gravitational attraction.

THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE IN THE UNIVERSE

Many other relations, distances, and factors are crucial to life as we know it.

Scientists recognize that there is a strong quality running through nature all about us, that enables life to exist on our planet. This is called the "anthropic principle." It appears that water, atmosphere, chemicals—were all perfectly designed for living things to exist, and, in special sense, for mankind to exist.

This is quite obvious to any thinking individual who is willing, without prejudice, to consider the things of nature in our world and outside of it.

There are many other examples that could be cited in nature which require the most delicate of balancings in order for the stars, planets, life, and mankind to exist.

The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history

 

Before concluding this section, we will consider but one more: the distance that the moon is from the earth. If it were much closer, it would crash into our planet, if much farther away, it would move off into space.

If it were much closer, the tides that the moon causes on the earth would become dangerously larger. Ocean waves would sweep across low-lying sections of the continents. Resultant friction would heat the oceans, destroying the delicate thermal balance needed for life on earth.

A more distant moon would reduce tidal action, making the oceans more sluggish. Stagnant water would endanger marine life, yet it is that very marine life that produces the oxygen that we breath. (We receive more of our oxygen from ocean plants than from land plants.) Why is the moon so exactly positioned in the sky overhead? Who placed it there? It surely did not rush by like a speeding train, then decide to pause, and carefully enter that balanced orbit.


Reference: creation-evolution encyclopedia

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