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God has created this world with astonishing balance in all of its components. This delicate balance prepared the universe to fit the life of the mankind, and this reality implies that man came to this earth to do a mission which is worshipping the creator of this magnificent universe. So let's review how each detail in this universe could affect our existence if it was not at the delicate balance, it exists now.

The following table shows what would happen if the delicate balance in each individual detail of this vast universe is violated. This obligates us to thank our God who bestows upon us with this delicate balance so that we can live in this universe.

Allah says in Quran "Lo! We have created every thing by measure" (Quran 54:49)

From a paper “Limits for the Universe” by Hugh Ross, Ph.D

1

Gravitational coupling constant

If larger:

No stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans

If smaller:

No stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element production

2

Strong nuclear force coupling constant

If larger:

No hydrogen; nuclei essential for life are unstable

If smaller:

No elements other than hydrogen

3

Weak nuclear force coupling constant

If larger:

All hydrogen is converted to helium in the big bang, hence too much heavy elements

If smaller:

No helium produced from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements

4

Electromagnetic coupling constant

If larger:

No chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron are unstable to fission

If smaller:

No chemical bonding

5

Ratio of protons to electrons formation

If larger:

Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation

If smaller:

Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation

6

Ratio of electron to proton mass

If larger:

No chemical bonding

If smaller:

No chemical bonding

7

Expansion rate of the universe

If larger:

No galaxy formation

If smaller:

Universe collapses prior to star formation

8

Entropy level of universe

If larger:

No star condensation within the proto-galaxies

If smaller:

No proto-galaxy formation

9

Mass density of the universe

If larger:

Too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly

If smaller:

No helium from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements

10

Age of the universe

If older:

No solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the galaxy

If younger:

Solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed

11

Initial uniformity of radiation

If  smoother:

Stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed

If coarser:

Universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space

12

Average distance between stars

If larger:

Heavy element density too thin for rocky planet production

If smaller:

Planetary orbits become destabilized

13

Solar luminosity

If increases too soon:

Runaway green house effect

If increases too late:

Frozen oceans

14

Fine structure constant*

If larger:

No stars more than 0.7 solar masses

If smaller:

No stars less then 1.8 solar masses

15

Decay rate of the proton

If greater:

Life would be exterminated by the release of radiation

If smaller:

Insufficient matter in the universe for life

16

12C to 16O energy level ratio

If larger:

Insufficient oxygen

If smaller:

Insufficient carbon

17

Decay rate of 8Be

If slower:

Heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars

If faster:

No element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life chemistry possible

18

Mass difference between the neutron and the proton

If greater:

Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form

If smaller:

Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form

19

Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons

If greater:

Too much radiation for planets to form

If smaller:

Not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form

20

Galaxy type

If too elliptical:

Star formation ceases  before sufficient heavy element buildup for life chemistry

If too irregular:

Radiation exposure on occasion is too severe and/or heavy elements for life chemistry are not available

21

Parent star distance from center of galaxy

If farther:

Quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky planets

If closer:

Stellar density and radiation would be too great

22

Number of stars in the planetary system

If more than one:

Tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbits

If less than one:

Heat produced would be insufficient for life

23

Parent star birth date

If more recent:

Star would not yet have reached stable burning phase

If less recent:

Stellar system would not yet contain enough heavy elements

24

Parent star mass

If greater:

Luminosity would change too fast; star would burn too rapidly

If less:

Range of distances appropriate for life would be too narrow; tidal forces would disrupt the rotational period for a planet of the right distance; uv radiation would be inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygen

25

Parent star age

If older:

Luminosity of star would change too quickly

If younger:

Luminosity of star would change too quickly

26

Parent star color

If redder:

Photosynthetic response would be insufficient

If bluer:

Photosynthetic response would be insufficient

27

Supernovae eruptions

If too close:

Life on the planet would be exterminated

If too far:

Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets

If too infrequent:

Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets

If too frequent:

Life on the planet would be exterminated

28

White dwarf binaries

If too few:

Insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed

If too many:

Disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the planet would be exterminated

29

Surface gravity (escape velocity)

If stronger:

Atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane

If weaker:

Planet's atmosphere would lose too much water

30

Distance from parent star

If farther:

Planet would be too cool for a stable water cycle

If closer:

Planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle

31

Inclination of orbit

If too great:

Temperature differences on the planet would be too extreme

       

32

Orbital eccentricity

If too great:

Seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme

       

33

Axial tilt

If greater:

Surface temperature differences would be too great

If less:

Surface temperature differences would be too great

34

Rotation period

If longer:

Diurnal temperature differences would be too great

If shorter:

Atmospheric wind velocities would be too great

35

Gravitational interaction with a moon

If greater:

Tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe

If less:

Orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities

36

Magnetic field

If stronger:

Electromagnetic storms would be too severe

If weaker:

Inadequate protection from hard stellar radiation

37

Thickness of crust

If thicker:

Too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust

If thinner:

Volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great

38

Albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface)

If greater:

Runaway ice age would develop

If less:

Runaway green house effect would develop

39

Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere

If larger:

Advanced life functions would proceed too quickly

If smaller:

Advanced life functions would proceed too slowly

40

Carbon dioxide level in atmosphere

If greater:

Runaway greenhouse effect would develop

If less:

Plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis

41

Water vapor level in atmosphere

If greater:

Runaway greenhouse effect would develop

If less:

Rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the land

42

Ozone level in atmosphere

If greater:

Surface temperatures would be too low

If less

Surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uv radiation at the surface

43

Atmospheric electric discharge rate

If greater:

Too much fire destruction would occur

If less:

Too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere

44

Oxygen quantity in atmosphere

If greater:

Plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily

If less:

Advanced animals would have too little to breathe

45

Oceans to continents ratio

If greater:

Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

If smaller:

diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

46

Soil materializations

If too nutrient poor:

diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

If too nutrient rich:

Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited

47

Seismic activity

If greater:

Too many life-forms would be destroyed

If less:

Nutrients on ocean floors (from river runoff) would not be recycled to the continents through tectonic uplift

From a paper “Limits for the Universe” by Hugh Ross, Ph.D

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