Universe
Typography

The scientific approach of the end of the universe asserts that there are three possible scenarios for this dramatic end.

Big freeze

It occurs if the universe continues expanding as it has been.

Over a time scale on the order of 1014 years or less,existing stars burn out, stars cease to be created, and the universe goes dark. Over a much longer time scale in the eras following this, the galaxy evaporates as the stellar remnants comprising it escape into space, and black holes evaporate via Hawking radiation. The universe may eventually achieve thermodynamic equilibrium.

 

 

 

Big crunch

If the energy density of dark energy was negative or the universe was closed, then it would be possible that the expansion of the universe would reverse and the universe would contract towards a hot, dense state. This is often proposed as part of an oscillatory universe scenario, such as the cyclic model. Current observations suggest that this model of the universe is unlikely to be correct, and the expansion will continue or even accelerate.

 

 

 

Big rip

This scenario is possible only if the energy density of dark energy actually increases without limit over time. In this case, the expansion rate of the universe will increase without limit. Gravitationally bound systems, such as clusters of galaxies, galaxies, and ultimately the solar system will be torn apart. Eventually the expansion will be so rapid as to overcome the electromagnetic forces holding molecules and atoms together. In other words, the universe will expand so much that the electromagnetic force holding things together will fall to this expansion, making things fall apart.

"Tai" Rolling up the heavens

Quran gave a clear picture of how the universe began and referred to the major events and facts on the universe evolution timeline. And to complete the picture, Quran also indicates how the universe will end.

The only theory that may be at high degree of agreement with the Quranic explanation of the fate of the universe is the big crunch theory. Quran asserts that the universe will return back to its original state from which it had been created. The universe will contract on itself as Quran indicates that the heavens will be rolled up like a scroll.

Allah says

"يَوۡمَنَطۡوِى ٱلسَّمَآءَ كطَىِّ ٱلسِّجِلِّ لِلكُتُبِ‌ۚ كَمَا بَدَأۡنَآأَوَّلَ خَلقٍ۬ نُّعِيدُهُ ۥۚ وَعدًا عَلَينَآۚ إِنَّا كُنَّافَـٰعِلِينَ" (الأنبياء: 104)

"And (remember) the Day when We shall roll up the heaven like a scroll rolled up for books, As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it, (it is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it." (Quran 21:104)

In another verse Quran indicates the fate of the earth and heavens. The fate of universe exhibits dramatic changes. Ultimately the heavens become convolute (Tai) and the earth is densely gathered (Kabd).

Allah says:

"وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ وَالْأَرْضُ جَمِيعاً قَبْضَتُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَالسَّماوَاتُ مَطْوِيَّاتٌ بِيَمِينِهِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ" (الزمر: 67)

They made not a just estimate of Allâh such as is due to Him. And on the Day of Resurrection the whole of the earth will be grasped by His Hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorified is He, and High is He above all that they associate as partners with Him! (Quran 75:67)

To know that the universe has a beginning and it will absolutely end is undeniable proof that this universe has a creator who is all-mighty and all-powerful. To know that Quran which is a book revealed from 1400 years has mentioned these cosmological facts that have only been discovered in the previous few decades is undeniable proof that Quran is the word of Allah the creator of this vast universe.

This knowledge, which the Qur’an came with, included a precise description of the subtlest secrets at a time when humanity could never have known them, which indicates that its source is Divine, as Allah (SWT) says: “Say: ‘the (Qur’an) was sent down by Him Who knows the secret (that is) in the heavens and the earth: Verily He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Quran 25:6)

It also indicates that the one to whom the Book was sent down was a Messenger inspired. Allah (SWT) but says the Truth in the Verse:" Soon will We show Our Signs in the Universe and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not sufficient that your Lord does witness all things?” (Quran 61:53)


1- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_fate_of_the_universe

References of the whole series


1.Smoot, George; Davidson. Keay (1993).Wrinkles in Time. New York: W. Morrow .ISBN 0688123309.

2.Mather, John; Boslough, John (1997). The Very First Light: The True inside Story of the Scientific Journey Back to the Dawn of the Universe. New York: Basic Books .ISBN 0465015751

3.G. Smoot, M. Gorenstein, and R. A. Muller (1977). “Detection of anisotropy in the cosmic blackbody radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 898

4.Smoot, G., Levin, S. M., Witebsky, C., De Amici, G., Y. Rephaeli.(1987) "An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation", Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United StG. F. Smootet al."Structure in the COBE DMR first year maps", Astrophysical Journal 396 L1–L5 (1992). C. L. Bennett et al. "Four year COBE DMR cosmic microwave background observations: maps and basic results.", Astrophysical Journal 464 L1–L4 (1996). ates Department of Energy.

5.Naoki Yoshida, Kazuyuki Omukai, and Lars Hernquist (2008): Protostar Formation in the Early Universe. Science 321 (5889), 669. [DOI: 10.1126/science.1160259]

6."Spitzer Cosmic Far-IR Background Project". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.

7.Kenneth Chang (2005). Astronomers sight the Big Bang's sound waves. International Herald Tribune. January 13, 2005

8.William Cocke (2005): Is This What the Big Bang Sounded Like?. for National Geographic News.

9.*David Whitehouse (2004 ): 'Birth cry' of the cosmos heard. BBC News Online science editor. Wednesday, 13:46 GMT, 14:46 YK, 23 Jun 2004. physicsforums.com/ archive/index.php/t-2310.html-6k-

10.Gamow W.: The great physicists from Galileo to Einstein. New York: Dover, 1988.

11.Gamow G. and Ralf Alefer (1948): The Origin of Chemical Elements". Physical Review, April 1, 1948.

<!--[if !supportLists]-->12.<!--[endif]-->Fred Hoyle, "The Universe: Past and Present Reflections." Engineering and Science, November, 1981. p 8-12

<!--[if !supportLists]-->13.<!--[endif]-->Hoyle, Fred, Evolution from Space, Omni Lecture, Royal Institution, London, January 12, 1982;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->14.<!--[endif]-->Evolution from Space (1982) pp 27-28 ISBN 0894900838

<!--[if !supportLists]-->15.<!--[endif]-->Evolution from Space: A Theory of Cosmic Creationism (1984) ISBN 0671492632

<!--[if !supportLists]-->16.<!--[endif]-->Hinshaw, Gary (December 15, 2005). "Tests of the Big Bang: The CMB". NASA WMAP. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

17.Hubble (1929): A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Volume 15 (1929)

18.WMAP Collaboration, " First year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Determination of cosmological parameters." Astrophys. J. Suppl. 148 175 (2003). arXiv astro-ph/0302209

19.Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results". NASA.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.

20.H. Alnes, M. Amarzguioui and O. Gron (2005): Can a dust dominated universe have accelerated expansion? astro-ph/0506449 (June 2005)

21.R. A. alpher and R.C. Herman : On the relative abundance of the elements. Physical review 74, 1737-42, 1948.

22.A.A. Penzias and R.W. Wilson (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". Astrophysical Journal 142: 419–421. doi:10.1086/148307.

A.A. Penzias. ""The origin of elements."". Nobel lecture. Retrieved on October 4, 2006.

A.A. Penzias and R. W. Wilson, "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s," Astrophysical Journal 142 (1965), 419. R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson, "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation," Astrophysical Journal 142 (1965), 414. The history is given in P. J. E. Peebles, Principles of physical cosmology (Princeton Univ. Pr., Princeton 1993).

A.<!--[endif]-->A. Penzias. ""The origin of elements."". Nobel lecture. Retrieved on October 4, 2006.

23.George Gamow, The Creation Of The Universe p.40 (Dover reprint of revised 1961 edition) ISBN 0-486-43868-6

24.G. Gamow, "The Origin of Elements and the Separation of Galaxies," Physical Review 74 (1948), 505. G. Gamow, "The evolution of the universe", Nature 162 (1948), 680. R. A. Alpher and R. Herman, "On the Relative Abundance of the Elements," Physical Review 74 (1948), 1577.

25.If there are other universes out there—as some scientists propose—then one or more of them might be detectable, a new study suggests. ...
www.world-science.net/exclusives/071011_universes.htm

26.Tegmark, Max (May 2003). "Parallel Universes". Scientific American.

27.Tegmark, Max (January 23 2003). Parallel Universes. Retrieved on 2006-02-07. (PDF).

28.www.spitzer.caltech.edu/about/index.shtml - 16k -

29.Håvard Alnes1, Morad Amarzguioui2 and Øyvind Grøn1,3 Can a dust dominated universe have accelerated expansion?

30.Takaya Nozawa (1), Takashi Kozasa (1), Hideyuki Umeda (2), Keiichi Maeda (2), Ken'ichi Nomoto: Dust in the Early Universe: Dust Formation in the Ejecta of Population III Supernovae. Astrophys.J. 598 (2003) 785-803
Hinshaw, Gary (December 15, 2005). "Tests of the Big Bang: The CMB". NASA WMAP. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

31.M. Harwit, M. Spaans (2003). "Chemical Composition of the Early Universe". The Astrophysical Journal 589 (1): 53–57. doi:10.1086/374415.
C. Kobulnicky, E. D. Skillman (1997). "Chemical Composition of the Early Universe". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 29: 1329.

32.WMAP Mission: Results – Age of the Universe

Weinberg S (1993). The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, 2nd updated edition, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465024377

المراجع العربية

أولا: القرآن وعلومه:

1- القرآن الكريم

2- المعجم المفهرس لألفاظ القرآن الكريم بحاشية المصحف الشريف. محمد فؤاد عبدالباقى – دار الحديث – القاهرة ، 950 صفحة.

3- الجامع لأحكام القرآن الكريم للإمام القرطبي ( 20 جزءا) – دار الكتب العلمية – بيروت – 1989.

4- مختصر تفسير بن كثير (3 مجلدات) – اختصار وتحقيق محمد على الصابوني، دار القرآن – بيروت.

5- في ظلال القرآن (6 مجلدات) – السيد قطب – دار الشروق – 1987.

6- المنتخب في تفسير القرآن الكريم – المجلس الأعلى للشئون الإسلامية – القاهرة – 2002.

للشئون الإسلامية.

ثانيا:الكتب العربية

1- تاريخ موجز الزمان – د. ستيفن هوكنج – ترجمة د. مصطفى إبراهيم فهمي – الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب – 2001.

5- الإسلام يتحدى – وحيد الدين خان – ترجمة ظفر الإسلام خان – مراجعة وتقديم د. عبدا لصبور شاهين -المختار الاسلامى – 260 صفحة. .

6- الأرض بين الآيات القرآنية والعلم الحديث – د. حسنى حمدان – المجلس الأعلى للشئون الإسلامية – القاهرة – العددان 83 ، 85 – 2002.

8- مقدمة التأريخ للأرض ودراسة طبقاتها - د. حسنى حمدان – لجنة التعريب والترجمة – جامعة قطر – 313 صفحة – 2000.

9- مقدمة في الجيولوجيا الطبيعية والتاريخية – د. حسنى حمدان – 158 صفحة – جامعة المنصورة – 1979.

10- السجل الجيولوجي عبر الزمن – د. حسنى حمدان – 275 صفحة – تحت الطبع.

910- الإسلام في عصر العلم – د. أحمد محمدالغمراوى – دار الإنسان بالقاهرة – 1991.

11- الكون والإعجاز العلمي في القرآن – منصور حسب النبي – دار الفكر العربي – 1996.

12- الإشارات العلمية في القرآن الكريم – د. كارم السيد غنيم – دار الفكر العربي – القاهرة – 1996

13- التفسير العلمي للقرآن في الميزان – دكتور أحمد عمر أبو حجر – دار قتيبة – 563 صفحة – 1991.

ثالثا: الدوريات والصحف السيارة

1- مجلة الإعجاز العلمي – الهيئة العالمية للإعجاز العلمي في القرآن والسنة – جدة – المملكة العربية السعودية – الأعداد من 1-14.

2- مجلة العلوم – ترجمة مؤسسة الكويت للتقدم العلمي .الأعداد من 1990-2008.

4- جريدة الجمهورية المصرية – مقالات الإعجاز العلمي في القرآن الكريم للدكتور حسنى حمدان.

1.Smoot, George; Davidson. Keay (1993).Wrinkles in Time. New York: W. Morrow .ISBN 0688123309.

2.Mather, John; Boslough, John (1997). The Very First Light: The True inside Story of the Scientific Journey Back to the Dawn of the Universe. New York: Basic Books .ISBN 0465015751

3.G. Smoot, M. Gorenstein, and R. A. Muller (1977). “Detection of anisotropy in the cosmic blackbody radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 898

4.Smoot, G., Levin, S. M., Witebsky, C., De Amici, G., Y. Rephaeli.(1987) "An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation", Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United StG. F. Smootet al."Structure in the COBE DMR first year maps", Astrophysical Journal 396 L1–L5 (1992). C. L. Bennett et al. "Four year COBE DMR cosmic microwave background observations: maps and basic results.", Astrophysical Journal 464 L1–L4 (1996). ates Department of Energy.

5.Naoki Yoshida, Kazuyuki Omukai, and Lars Hernquist (2008): Protostar Formation in the Early Universe. Science 321 (5889), 669. [DOI: 10.1126/science.1160259]

6."Spitzer Cosmic Far-IR Background Project". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.

7.Kenneth Chang (2005). Astronomers sight the Big Bang's sound waves. International Herald Tribune. January 13, 2005

8.William Cocke (2005): Is This What the Big Bang Sounded Like?. for National Geographic News.

9.*David Whitehouse (2004 ): 'Birth cry' of the cosmos heard. BBC News Online science editor. Wednesday, 13:46 GMT, 14:46 YK, 23 Jun 2004. physicsforums.com/ archive/index.php/t-2310.html-6k-

10.Gamow W.: The great physicists from Galileo to Einstein. New York: Dover, 1988.

11.Gamow G. and Ralf Alefer (1948): The Origin of Chemical Elements". Physical Review, April 1, 1948.

<!--[if !supportLists]-->12.<!--[endif]-->Fred Hoyle, "The Universe: Past and Present Reflections." Engineering and Science, November, 1981. p 8-12

<!--[if !supportLists]-->13.<!--[endif]-->Hoyle, Fred, Evolution from Space, Omni Lecture, Royal Institution, London, January 12, 1982;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->14.<!--[endif]-->Evolution from Space (1982) pp 27-28 ISBN 0894900838

<!--[if !supportLists]-->15.<!--[endif]-->Evolution from Space: A Theory of Cosmic Creationism (1984) ISBN 0671492632

<!--[if !supportLists]-->16.<!--[endif]-->Hinshaw, Gary (December 15, 2005). "Tests of the Big Bang: The CMB". NASA WMAP. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

17.Hubble (1929): A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Volume 15 (1929)

18.WMAP Collaboration, " First year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Determination of cosmological parameters." Astrophys. J. Suppl. 148 175 (2003). arXiv astro-ph/0302209

19.Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results". NASA.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.

20.H. Alnes, M. Amarzguioui and O. Gron (2005): Can a dust dominated universe have accelerated expansion? astro-ph/0506449 (June 2005)

21.R. A. alpher and R.C. Herman : On the relative abundance of the elements. Physical review 74, 1737-42, 1948.

22.A.A. Penzias and R.W. Wilson (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". Astrophysical Journal 142: 419–421. doi:10.1086/148307.

A.A. Penzias. ""The origin of elements."". Nobel lecture. Retrieved on October 4, 2006.

A.A. Penzias and R. W. Wilson, "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s," Astrophysical Journal 142 (1965), 419. R. H. Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson, "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation," Astrophysical Journal 142 (1965), 414. The history is given in P. J. E. Peebles, Principles of physical cosmology (Princeton Univ. Pr., Princeton 1993).

A.<!--[endif]-->A. Penzias. ""The origin of elements."". Nobel lecture. Retrieved on October 4, 2006.

23.George Gamow, The Creation Of The Universe p.40 (Dover reprint of revised 1961 edition) ISBN 0-486-43868-6

24.G. Gamow, "The Origin of Elements and the Separation of Galaxies," Physical Review 74 (1948), 505. G. Gamow, "The evolution of the universe", Nature 162 (1948), 680. R. A. Alpher and R. Herman, "On the Relative Abundance of the Elements," Physical Review 74 (1948), 1577.

25.If there are other universes out there—as some scientists propose—then one or more of them might be detectable, a new study suggests. ...
www.world-science.net/exclusives/071011_universes.htm

26.Tegmark, Max (May 2003). "Parallel Universes". Scientific American.

27.Tegmark, Max (January 23 2003). Parallel Universes. Retrieved on 2006-02-07. (PDF).

28.www.spitzer.caltech.edu/about/index.shtml - 16k -

29.Håvard Alnes1, Morad Amarzguioui2 and Øyvind Grøn1,3 Can a dust dominated universe have accelerated expansion?

30.Takaya Nozawa (1), Takashi Kozasa (1), Hideyuki Umeda (2), Keiichi Maeda (2), Ken'ichi Nomoto: Dust in the Early Universe: Dust Formation in the Ejecta of Population III Supernovae. Astrophys.J. 598 (2003) 785-803
Hinshaw, Gary (December 15, 2005). "Tests of the Big Bang: The CMB". NASA WMAP. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

31.M. Harwit, M. Spaans (2003). "Chemical Composition of the Early Universe". The Astrophysical Journal 589 (1): 53–57. doi:10.1086/374415.
C. Kobulnicky, E. D. Skillman (1997). "Chemical Composition of the Early Universe". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 29: 1329.

32.WMAP Mission: Results – Age of the Universe

Weinberg S (1993). The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, 2nd updated edition, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465024377

المراجع العربية

أولا: القرآن وعلومه:

1- القرآن الكريم

2- المعجم المفهرس لألفاظ القرآن الكريم بحاشية المصحف الشريف. محمد فؤاد عبدالباقى – دار الحديث – القاهرة ، 950 صفحة.

3- الجامع لأحكام القرآن الكريم للإمام القرطبي ( 20 جزءا) – دار الكتب العلمية – بيروت – 1989.

4- مختصر تفسير بن كثير (3 مجلدات) – اختصار وتحقيق محمد على الصابوني، دار القرآن – بيروت.

5- في ظلال القرآن (6 مجلدات) – السيد قطب – دار الشروق – 1987.

6- المنتخب في تفسير القرآن الكريم – المجلس الأعلى للشئون الإسلامية – القاهرة – 2002.

للشئون الإسلامية.

ثانيا:الكتب العربية

1- تاريخ موجز الزمان – د. ستيفن هوكنج – ترجمة د. مصطفى إبراهيم فهمي – الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب – 2001.

5- الإسلام يتحدى – وحيد الدين خان – ترجمة ظفر الإسلام خان – مراجعة وتقديم د. عبدا لصبور شاهين -المختار الاسلامى – 260 صفحة. .

6- الأرض بين الآيات القرآنية والعلم الحديث – د. حسنى حمدان – المجلس الأعلى للشئون الإسلامية – القاهرة – العددان 83 ، 85 – 2002.

8- مقدمة التأريخ للأرض ودراسة طبقاتها - د. حسنى حمدان – لجنة التعريب والترجمة – جامعة قطر – 313 صفحة – 2000.

9- مقدمة في الجيولوجيا الطبيعية والتاريخية – د. حسنى حمدان – 158 صفحة – جامعة المنصورة – 1979.

10- السجل الجيولوجي عبر الزمن – د. حسنى حمدان – 275 صفحة – تحت الطبع.

910- الإسلام في عصر العلم – د. أحمد محمدالغمراوى – دار الإنسان بالقاهرة – 1991.

11- الكون والإعجاز العلمي في القرآن – منصور حسب النبي – دار الفكر العربي – 1996.

12- الإشارات العلمية في القرآن الكريم – د. كارم السيد غنيم – دار الفكر العربي – القاهرة – 1996

13- التفسير العلمي للقرآن في الميزان – دكتور أحمد عمر أبو حجر – دار قتيبة – 563 صفحة – 1991.

ثالثا: الدوريات والصحف السيارة

1- مجلة الإعجاز العلمي – الهيئة العالمية للإعجاز العلمي في القرآن والسنة – جدة – المملكة العربية السعودية – الأعداد من 1-14.

2- مجلة العلوم – ترجمة مؤسسة الكويت للتقدم العلمي .الأعداد من 1990-2008.

4- جريدة الجمهورية المصرية – مقالات الإعجاز العلمي في القرآن الكريم للدكتور حسنى حمدان.

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