The discovery of the expansion of the universe achieved by the astronomer Edwin Hubble at 1929, was based on the red shift of the faraway galaxies, red shift occurs when an object is receding far away from an observer, and so the object´s light wave left behind it get elongated, light waves when elongated are shifted to red Fig.1.
When Hubble discovered that the light received from the galaxies located farther away from the Earth, is more red shifted, that means the farther galaxies receding speeds from the Earth are higher than the nearby ones, which means that as the farthest galaxies are speeding up⁽¹⁾, the whole universe containing them is receding from us, or by another way, it is expanding, but what is the relation between this and the age of the universe?
Fig. 1 ⁽²⁾
As we know that the light speed is constant, and the light speed is equal to the distance divided by time, this means estimating the distance of certain stars (Cephids variable stars) with knowing the speed of light, will estimate for us the time these stars took to recede from the Earth. When applying this idea on the whole universe that is also considered to be receding from a singularity point, with using extra equations, and the farthest seen galaxies, the age of the universe was calculated.
In addition, the farther these galaxies seemed to be, the greater the red shift, and thus the faster they seemed to be speeding away. This was the first direct evidence that the universe is not static but expanding. By calculating when all of the objects must have started speeding out from the same point yielded the first estimate of the age of the Universe.
According to science, the age of the universe is 13.75 ± 0.11 billion. This is however only the estimated time since the Big Bang. It is not known if something existed before the singularity that we call Big Bang, nor if time is linear, since the expansion estimated by Hubble's law assumed a linear expansion. Furthermore, as per scientists, calculating the age of the universe is only accurate if the assumptions built into the models being used to estimate it are also accurate, considering that:
"Based on the fact they have assumed the underlying model they used is correct"
However, the Big Bang model according to which these calculations were done is banged hardly nowadays by many scientists; Briane Greene is one of them. From my point of view as a mechanical engineer, the Big Bang cannot create a universe, neither any body can imagine that, the Big Bang should be considered as a moment that either set the universe to expand by itself, or pushed its constituents to expand, no more than that, this means their should be some other shape of the universe at the Bang time, am I right or am I wrong to consider it has a shape, can be further supported by the following discussion.
For a mechanical engineer, not like a physicist, the look to the universe is different, what we see in the universe are products, a product to be produced need a tool to make it, the tool model should have two basic requirements: a- Geometrical shape. B- Type of energetic movement. These are required to imprint its geometry on the product and to give it part of its motive energy to move it in a systematic meaningful guided way. The Big Bang only cause expansion and temperature decrease, but it destroys instead of creating a meaningful products shapes, the term gravity is inserted in-between the universe constituents as an additive that prevents the side effects of the Big Bang, but if we know that since the most amazing discovery ⁽³⁾ at 1998 that the universe is accelerating in its expansion, nobody can persuade a scientist or a child that the gravity has held the universe constituents since a long time when the effect of the Big Bang expansion was great, while the gravity now became weak when the effect of the Big Bang decayed, neither can anybody explain how after the Big Bang by billions of years the universe started to accelerate its expansion, because any natural or manmade explosion in the nature after an accelerating expansion by a short period, and slowing down, can start again to accelerate it after a long period.
Also, the Big Bang constituents (celestial bodies, dark matter) after the Bang’s power expanding effect decays should leave these in a natural fall, which we can not see today. So every point of thinking supports that a geometrical model should be standing behind the natural phenomena that we are discovering and seeing, that geometrical model should not only explain what we have discovered or seen, it should reveal what we do not know.
As the expansion of the universe is supporting the idea if we go by time backwards the universe should be smaller, and as the expansion of the universe supports the thermodynamic principle of temperature decrease (as size increase, temperature increase), which also is discovered to be applicable in the universe case, that means our assumed model should be naturally expanding, but as the 1998 discovery demands an acceleration in the expansion, our model should be also naturally accelerating in its expansion.
But what about the universe constituents? How can it be distributed normally all around inside the universe without falling down naturally?
If we search around us for a type of movement that can distribute a system constituents inside a 3D model naturally without falling down, we will find that it is by rotating the constituents, as in the hurricane, or sugar rotated inside a glass.
Now we added another requirement to our model, in addition to expansion, it iss rotating, if we try to draw a sketch for a 2D model, rotating and expanding, the shape will be a spiral, if we try to draw a 3D shape for it, it will be much like a scroll (nearly folded paper).
So, the assumed geometrical shape of the universe should be a spiral scroll, an expanding scroll. A quick direct fingerprint of a universe having this shape are the spiral galaxies, a quick look at an expanding scroll can show clearly it is accelerating in its expansion when set to move freely from a folded state, while it is distributing any constituents inside it upside down without falling, and with keeping it moving as every celestial object is moving in the universe.
Before calculating such universe actual age, we need to remember that light is the main tool to carry out that, but we need to remember also that the movement of this universe is not straight linear as that resulting from the Big Bang, it is Spiral Logarithmic.
But light in a non straight space (space-time) does not move straight, according to the results of Sir Arthur Eddington expedition, which carried out interpretations of the general relativity, light which is normally expected to be a beam following a straight line, is found to follow a curved path while passing a high gravity curved field (Fig. 2). While it is well-known that light passes in-between two different density mediums e.g.: from air to water, it suffers from deviation, while if we let it to pass through multi different increasing density mediums, it will suffer from a great deviation that will appear from far away to be curved. Also it is proved that the light passing from behind the galaxies towards us will be divided all around the galaxy's curved space, where it finally appears in our telescopes as a lens of light (Fig. 3).
Further phenomenon of light track suffering from bending, can be seen by the deflection of light (sent out from the location shown in blue (Fig. 4) near a compact body (shown in gray) Closely related to light deflection is the gravitational time delay (or Shapiro effect), the phenomenon that light signals take longer to move through a gravitational field than they would in the absence of that field. There have been numerous successful tests of this prediction.In the parameterized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN), measurements of both the deflection of light and the gravitational time delay determine a parameter called γ, which encodes the influence of gravity on the geometry of space.^ Will 1993, sec. 7.1 and 7.2
Fig. 2 ⁽⁴⁾
Fig. 3 ⁽⁵⁾
|Fig. 4 ⁽⁶⁾|
So the light can bend, curve, delay while moving through the universe depending on the shape and strength of what is called gravitational field while passing through or nearby it were a high curvature of space-time is caused by huge masses concentration.
This means that the path of light is curving in space, when the density of the fabric of the cosmos (space-time) is changing, so we can further suppose if we twist the fabric of the cosmos in the space in away, that the density of this fabric is increasing gradually, from point to point, along the twisted space, the path of light will be twisted.
Now, what about the effect of a whole curved spiral universe on a beam of light moving from the borders of the universe towards our Earth?
If the heavens are rolled like a scroll, and expanding in a spiral track, this will lead us to assume that the light track will be twisted in the shape of a spiral through great astronomical distances, this means that the age of universe that we are measuring, may be different from the actual age, how?
As the light will move in a spiral way not straight linear track, from the point it appeared after the Big Bang happened, or the first stars light appearing until it reached us, this means that the light will follow a longer path from the point it left, to the point it reached. But how can we know how much is the pitch of the spiral way that light will follow, so that we can measure its distance length?
If we take a paper, and check which type of spiral shape it follows when it expands, we will find that any point on the paper scroll path, will increase its distance, and speed logarithmically, while moving away from the centre, this type of spiral path, is called a logarithmic spiral. For example, in Fig. 5, if we move from the centre (A) to point (C) in a straight line, we will pass 9 units of distance, while if we take the spiral way, we will pass around 27 units of distance, also we can see for each cycle of the spiral track, we moved away from the centre, we move 3 times the straight distance that we moved in the cycle prior to it, meaning for each cycle, we get logarithmically farther a way from the centre, the steps will not be equal, but will be increasing, because the acceleration of the expansion of the logarithmic spiral is increasing.
All the nature creatures, which follow a spiral track, are following a logarithmic spiral track, but in the universe case we do not know the pitch of the heavens scroll logarithmic spiral path, but if we consider that this spiral path has an effect and leaving a finger print on the spiral galaxies, we can take our galaxy first as an example. As we know our galaxy is assumed to have a spiral pitch nearly equal 12.
In Fig. 4, the pitch of the logarithmic spiral is 10, which is near the value of our galaxy pitch, if we supposed their is a light source at point (A) and we were observing it from point (C) we will see it crossing nine units of distance, if it follows a straight line, but if this light followed a curved path through the fabric of the cosmos in the whole universe in a spiral track as it should do, like the one shown in the Fig. 5, this light will cross 27 units of distance until reaching the Earth, so it will take 3 times the time that it will take, if it comes to us through the straight track, in another way, the time the light need to reach point C is delayed, and so it will measure a higher age.
This means for the same spiral shape in Fig. 5, if the straight distance between points (A) and (C) equals (4.567) units (where each unit equals 1 billion years), the length of the spiral track between points (A) and (C) will be 3 times of the (4.567) distance, which will equal (13.701) units, or 13.701 billion years which is the age of our universe, while the first number is the age of the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the solar system with an age nearly equal that of the Earth, the 13.701 billion years measured if divided by the scientific measured age of the universe, the result = 99.64 %.
Did our light follow such a spiral path, that it reached us delayed 3 times the actual time that it would take to reach us, if it went in a straight line between us and the universe first radiated light and hence it is measuring three times the actual age of the universe? With the assumed conclusion like that, is the age of the universe really equals that of the Earth?
But if the age of the Earth is equal to the age of the universe, from were did the Earth come, as it is assumed to be created from the Sun that is assumed to be created after the universe creation by nine billion years?
At this point it need to be noted that the Earth creation from the Sun is a scientific assumption, which can be falsified by knowing that the vast number of the Earth’s elements are not available in the sun, furthermore the Sun is not rocky, not cold, no water, no life. Do not this means that the Earth has a special way of creation that can support life through infinite number of physical, biological, chemical... systems supported by life which still can not be created by all the humanity even in one cell.
But how can I support these results with other proofs?
The only one who know if the universe that is enveloped by the heavens has a shape of a scroll is only the one who created it, the only one who claimed that he created it is God (Allah) who claimed that through the books he sent down to his profits (Moses: Torah (Old Testament), Jesus: Bible, Mohammed: The Quran), so what did God mention about the heavens in his books?
In the Old Testament, we read the following:
Isaiah 34:4All the stars of the heavens will be dissolved and the sky rolled up like a scroll;
New American Standard Bible(©1995):And the sky will be rolled up like a scroll;
The phrases here indicates clearly that the end shape of the heavens or sky is like a scroll, but what is its shape of it at the beginning, if it is like a scroll, this means in-between the start and the ends its shape is a spiral logarithmic folded paper, but where can we get the answer and the proof?
Before more than 1400 years God also sent down the Quran to Mohammed who was not reading or writing, in the Quran we find the following:
(The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it) (Surat Al-'Anbyā': 104)
It is clear here that the Quran is adding that at the beginning of creation of the heaven its shape was like a folded sheet (a scroll), the verse further shows that the heaven will be folded back, which means the heaven will finish its expansion like an expanded scroll, which agree with what was mentioned in the Old Testament.
These proofs further agree with the greatest unexplained amazing scientific discovery, which is the accelerating expansion of the universe, which turned over most of our prior theories and models of the universe, were a scroll when released to expand, it will accelerate in its expansion.
But, to say the universe shape is like a scroll, implements that the actual age of the universe is shorter than the calculated cosmological one (13.72 billion years), it may be short until its equal the age of the Earth, but is the heavenly holy books are supporting that, that is to say the age of the heaven and the Earth are nearly equal 4.5 - 4.7 billion years?
Actually the Bible and Quran both agreed about the creation sequence, where the Bible mentioned the following:
«The sun, moon, and stars were created only after" the earth "below was created. » (Gen. 1:9-18).
While in the Quran:
(It is He who created for you all of that which is in the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is knowing of all things) (Surat Al Baqarah: 29)
So, the model proposed here for the shape of the universe, supports the discoveries related to the universe’s a- accelerated expansion b- temperature decrease c- the symmetry of celestial bodies distribution d- their movements through the universe e- reshaping of the celestial bodies f- the driving power (dark energy) of the universe expansion which is the stored energy in the originally folded scroll.
It further supports what is mentioned in the holy books about the age of the heavens which is nearly equal to that of the Earth, it also supports the verse mentioned in the Quran about the heavens expansion which is the greatest scientific discovery in the history, but simply which is mentioned before that discovery by 13 centuries in the Holy Quran where the Quran mentioned:
(And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are its expander) (Adh-Dhāriyāt: 47)
But for those who did not believe in God, I remind them by a further Quranic verse that is drawing a figure of the heavens end shape:
(They have not appraised Allah (God) with true appraisal, while the earth entirely will be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right hand. Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him) (Surat Az-Zumar: 67)
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Written by: Eng. Wasfi Amin Alshdaifat (Author, Inventor).
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